The Missiology of Johann Calvin and John Wesley evaluated on the base of “Sola Scriptura”
with Mt 28:19.20
1. John Calvin’s Call and Focus
1.1 John Calvin‘s Formation as Reformer
1.2 The Reformation in Geneva begins under William Farel
1.3 Reformer Farel: 1st Call for Calvin
1.4 Calvin’s Pasturing Years and Marriage in Strasbourg
1.5 Geneva’s City Council calls Calvin the 2nd time
1.6 Calvin’s edition of Institutes of the Christian Religion and his Commentaries
2. John Wesley’ Call and Focus
2.2 Early Life
2.3 Conversion and Time With The Moravian Society
2.4 Persecutions & Lay Preaching
2.5 Chapels & Organizations, Ordination of Ministers
2.6 Advocacy of Armenians, Doctrines and Theology
2.7 Personality & Personal Life and Death
2.8 His Works In overview
2.9 John Wesley’ Timeline
3. John Calvin and John Wesley’s Teaching Concepts compared
3.1 Calvin’s View of Predestination- Five Points of Calvinism (the TULIP model)
3.2 Calvin’s Development of biblical Church structures
3.3 The Calvinism of John Wesley
3.4 Understanding of Original Sin (Chart 1: Doctrines of Reformed Theology)
3.5 Saving Faith as a Gift of divine Grace (chart2: Contrasting Positions)
3.6 Content of “Wesleyanism” (Chart 3+4: Salvation Persp.,Wesleyan Arminianism)
3.7 Calvinism and Wesleyanism as framework for Missiology compared
4. John Calvin and John Wesley’s Missiology compared
4.1 Evaluation John Calvin’s Missiology
4.1.1 Calvinist Missiology proclaims the “missio Dei trinitatis”
4.1.2 Calvinist Missiology emphasize the Need of conversion
4.1.3 Calvinist Missiology and its modeled Immigrant Missiology
4.2 Evaluating John Wesley’s Missiology
4.2.1 Experiencing Missionary Life - lessons
4.2 2. Reflecting the 18th Century mission service models
4.2.3 John Wesley’s maturing missiology toward a missio Dei redemptiones
4.2.4 The two distinctives of John Wesley’s missiology
4.3 Calvin and Wesley’s missiological convictions in overview
Strict versus Perfected (Conclusion)
1. Calvinist Missiology in France and 1st Protestant Missionary Training Center (1553)
2. Calvinist Missiology and its support in Italy’s Waldensian Churches (1536)
3. Applied Calvinist Missiology in Germany (1562)
4. Applied Calvinist Missiology in Poland (1555)
5. Applied Calvinist Missiology in Hongrie (1550)
6. Applied Calvinist Missiology in the Netherlands (1555)
7. Applied mission efforts in Calvin’s Overseas Mission in Brazil (1556)
Mission is the commission of our Lord Jesus Christ (at least Mt 28:16–20, Lc 9:1–9; 10:1–23). The disciples and the other witnesses of his crucifixion, resurrection and ascension all obeyed this commission and therefore played an important role in the first missionary attempts by the church.
The Early Church (the church of the first five centuries) and its theologians were successful in converting people to Jesus Christ, establishing congregations, apologetically defending and explaining the gospel to skeptic people and critics, engaging in dialogue with people of other faiths and world views, contextualizing the gospel in different social settings, humanizing the world and prophetically witnessing to the public and political authorities.
Calvin was a quiet man who rarely talked about himself, and whose life is therefore often quite difficult to chronicle, he suffered from ill health, and was happily married, though for short time only. He died at a relatively early age. Wesley, on the other hand, recorded his life in great detail and enjoyed amazingly good health until his last years. Wesley's marriage was a complete disaster, and yet he died at a ripe old age. Calvin's work was done while based in one place, while Wesley travelled throughout the British Isles.
The following paragraph aims to not only topically discuss the issue, but to have some answers growing out of their biography. Both leaders were different in one account: Calvin strictly observed the principle of “sola scriptura” in all questions of life especially applied to both the secular and clerical authorities, including the responsibility of the church to help, to teach and to bring the gospel to the nations, while John Wesley besides preaching apparently saw the highest value of his efforts in the creation of a helpful system for the inner men to keep converted people on the path of growth in holiness and have them reach perfection in love.
Although both were not far apart from each other, the different emphasize in their ministry determined how much the Great Commission gained shape in other nations. To use both leaders contributions we too need for what both were fighting for: an understanding of God’s grace.
1. John Calvin’s Call and Focus
Wesley and Calvin were very different men, not simply doctrinally. One seemed to be called to say things very strict and the other extremely particular. One worked to see Gods light coming in a morally completely hopeless town and the other was driven by the deep desire to have men experiencing true restoration and perfection. In both leaders’ life God used their own personal experiences to imprint His message.
1.1 John Calvin’s Conversion and Formation as Reformer
With 12 years of age Calvin was employed by the bishop at the cathedral of Noyen and could then pay for his studies by himself. After a few months only the council of cathedral in Noyen decided to have him move to the Collège de Montaigu in Sorbonne where he earned the title „Magister artium“. Because of a serious fight of his father with the Catholic Church in Noyen about some heritage matters, where he was punished with the “small spell” he discouraged his son to study theology, but wants him to study Roman law in Orléans, instead. Here Calvin’s meets with the German Melchior Volmar, a teacher for Greek and a supporter of Martin Luther. Calvin catches fire for humanistic education and moves to Bourges, where he finishes his studies as a Licentiate and because his scores are so good the faculty offers him a doctorate. Calvin declines.
1521 With 12 years of age employed by the bishop at the Cathedral of Noyen
1523 Collège du Marché, Paris (studying Grammar, Rhetoric, Dialectic, Music, Arithmetic. Geometry, Astronomy
1528 Calvin studies law in Orléans and Bourges. Learning Greek 
1529-early 1530: Calvin goes through a “sudden conversion” (conversio subita).
1531-1532: Humanistic Studies in Paris: (Collège de trois language, Hebrew, Greek, Latin).
1532: Paris April: Publication of commentary to Seneca’s writings De clementia
1532: Orléans: Juridical Studies in Orléans , work as Licentiate
In 1533 he is in Paris. In the house of his landlord a house group of Martin Luther friendly Christians are meeting regularly. Gérard Roussel, the Kings preacher and counselor is also part of this group. Here Calvin spends time to learn more about the reformers teaching. Together with his friend Nikolaus Kop, who is the new principal of the university Calvin writes the opening speech to be held before the Paris’ clerical dignitaries. Part of the content describes the scholastic theology as „heretic teaching, while Luther’s new teaching are praised as “orthodox, conservative theology” combined with the open call to therefore better embrace the evangelicals as friends.  As a result of the tumultuous reaction Kop and his friends have to flee, when the persecutor knock on the door, Calvin takes two blankets, and lets himself from the window down to the court and escapes to Angoulême where his friend and former classmate Louis du Tillet, now a priest at the cathedral receives him and gives him another name („Charles d’Espeville“).  As a fruit of his yearlong studies and reflections of everything he had gone through Calvin decides to support the reformation movement with his means. This is a real break-through after a longer time of reflection. He embraces the gospel of grace and atonement in Christ only. In winter 1533/34 he begins to systematically elaborate the content of Reformed teaching, laying the foundation for the “Institutio Christianae” 
After Calvin’s decision to support the reformation thousands of people want to hear him. Calvin. In Crotelles without being ordained as priest or examined as theologian Calvin feels free to share the Lord’s Supper in both forms. Here he meets his friend Nikolaus Kop again, takes lesson in Greek and full of thank for such hospitality and help writes his first commentary (the letter of Romans) three years later dedicated to teacher Simon Grynäus. In the same Swiss city he gains a connection his cousin Pierre-Robert Olivetan, again, who in the meantime had finished the translation of the Bible from Hebrew and Greek into French. (Bible de Genève). He asks Calvin to write the introduction for the first edition. This becomes Calvins first theological publication.
1.2 Farel finishes the Reformation in Geneva: Call for Calvin
Calvin’s predecessor in Geneva, William Farel was a very gifted 20 years older pastor (1489-1565), who prior to his time in Geneva had successfully finished the reformation in his hometown Neuchâtel (German: Neuenburg). He spiritually led Geneva on its way to political independence since 1532. Geneva’s political independence was achieved under William Farel. The new church model was introduced through the Bernese and other Swiss Confederation Reformed Church prior to his arrival. Calvin’s fame for Excellency in literary work had reached far spread recognition among reformers. To ask him to stay in Geneva and assist, for French reformation visionary Farel was only the next important step. He was convinced God had chosen the city's political independence struggle to introduce reformation.
1.3 Reformer Farel: 1st Call for Calvin
In 1536 Calvin travelled from Italy to Strasbourg. On August he stopped at the city of Geneva where he intended to stay just one night. Farel saw in the 26 years old young reformer the teacher needed to consolidate the work. But Calvin had no desire to stay in Geneva. He was tired and longed for rest. 'May God curse your rest!' shouted Farel. Later he wrote in the introduction to his Commentary on the Book of Psalms:
“I was not persuaded by an urgent speech or an admonition, but through the terrifying words of Farel, as if God would put his hand from heaven on me. "
So Calvin was persuaded to stay and he began to preach in the Cathedral of St. Pierre, Geneva. On Oct 1st 1536, only two month after Calvin had arrived again in Geneva the Roman Catholic priests of the nearby city of Lausanne the Reformers challenged the Catholic priests by a public debate. There were 200 City Council members in Geneva. The priests were mostly ignorant and unable to defend the Roman Catholic position. Farel and Viret, two well-known Swiss Reformer, were the spokesmen for the Bible. They took Calvin with them as an observer as they had no experience with such disputes. The debate went on for several days. One priest in defense of transubstantiation started to quote from the Early Church Fathers. Farel and Viret were unable to handle this and looked to Calvin for help. Standing up, the latter proceeded to quote from memory passages from the Early Church Fathers, giving the exact source in each case.  It was an amazing display of learning and had an electrifying effect on the assembly. The opposition was completely confounded. One priest was converted immediately. As a result of this astonishing performance not only did Lausanne turn Protestant, 200 priests renounced the Roman Catholic Church. The Reformers would demonstrate the Roman Catholic teaching to be without biblical foundation and this convinced the City Council to reject Roman Catholic practice and control. Already after two more months, in January 1537, Calvin and Farel together with the reformer Illiè Coraud proposed the small city council a reform program. The four requirements included to often participate at the Holy Supper, sing psalms, study biblical lectures and to attend a workshop about marriage. In the upcoming election Calvin’s faith enemies, the libertinists gained the majority in the city council in 1538. All new positions with city mayors were occupied with people from this Calvin opposing party.  However, it was not until Farel and Calvin themselves broke the Bernese church order regarding the way to hold the Lord’s Supper law (with unleavened bread) which was the reason to restrict them, that they got into trouble. Despite being forbidden to preach they both on Eastern Sunday walked up to the pulpit to preach as usual. Because of an unclarified matter of dispute they refused to give out the Holy Supper to the congregation. The city council acted quickly. Together with their blind colleague Coraud, who has been put into prison, they were released from their responsibilities and had to leave the city within two days. Farel went back to minister in his old church in Neuchâtel and served there until his death in the year 1565.
1.4 Calvin’s Pasturing Years in Strasbourg – 1st Edition of “Institutio”(Latin version)
From Basel Calvin soon moved to Strasbourg. Bucer and Capito, two outstanding reformers recognized his gifts and Bucer invited him to pastor a church with a French speaking immigrant congregation numbering 500 which he pastured from 1538 to 1541.In this time his most notable work was the Institutes of the Christian Religion, the first edition of which was published in 1536 in Latin when he was twenty-six years old. Calvin’s work in Strasbourg gave him time for scientific researches. In that time he also held theological lectures at the Gymnasium, which was led by his friend Johannes Sturm. In the fall of 1539 he completed the first major revision and expansion of Institutes of the Christian Religion. At the preliminary meeting in Frankfurt am Main in 1539, Calvin met Philip Melanchthon, with whom he stayed in touch by correspondence until his death. In August 1540 Calvin married Idelette de Buren, who brought two children into the relationship. She probably gave birth to three more children, but they all have died short after birth.  After nine years of lucky marriage Idelette died.
1.5 Geneva’s City Council calls Calvin the 2nd time
After the anti-Calvinist party in Geneva was overthrown, Calvin’s close Swiss friends urged him to return to Geneva. On 19 May 1540 Calvin wrote to Viret: "Should I go to Geneva for the better? Why not directly to the cross? It would be better to die once than to be tortured and tortured again and again! [...] There is no place in the world, of whom I fear more to go." The Geneva Council since the fall of 1540 sought to recall their exiled reformer. Farel particularly tried hard to win his former friend for the Geneva Church back. After hesitating for a long time Calvin made the decision to regard the call to return as God’s and serve HIM in obedience.  As a result Geneva became the starting point not only for a clerical reformation but also to prepare for a major reform movement. Calvin did not held pace with the huge workload for long. He died not even 55 years old, on 27 May 27th 1564. At his own request he was buried without a funeral at an undisclosed location. 
1.6 Calvin’s edition of Institutes of the Christian Religion and his Commentaries
John Calvin was a prolific writer of theology. His most notable work was the Institutes of the Christian Religion, the first edition of which was published in 1536 in Latin when he was twenty-six years old. Calvin revised the Institutes several times. The final edition differed radically from the original 1536 edition, as it was no longer merely a manual for new believers. Instead, it had grown into a thorough systematic theology comprising four books (or “volumes”) and dealt with more doctrines of the Christian faith. The Institutes were published in the languages in the following nine years:
• 1536: Latin (six chapters)
• 1539 Latin (three times as long)
• 1541 French
• 1543 Latin (expanded)
• 1545 French
• 1550 Latin
• 1551 French
• 1559 Latin (final edition, 4 “books”)
• 1560 French
In between Calvin also published commentaries on twenty-three of the Old Testament books and all of the New Testament books except 2-3 John and Revelation. Calvin had a strong con-viction that commentaries should be clear and brief. Thus, his Institutes received more of the doctrinal discussions, and yet, doctrinal matters still found their way into his commentaries. The commentaries were published in both Latin and French.
A list of each commentary and its publication date is as follows:
OT NT - Isaiah (1551; expanded in 1559) - Genesis (1554) - Psalms (1557) - Exodus - Deuteronomy (1563) - Joshua (1564, just after his death) .
▪ Romans (1540)
▪ 1 & 2 Corinthians (1546)
▪ Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, and Colossians (1548)
▪ 1 & 2 Timothy (1548)
▪ Hebrews (1549)
▪ Titus (1550)
▪ 1 & 2 Thessalonians and Philemon (1550)
▪ Acts (1552)
▪ John (1553)
▪ Matthew, Mark, and Luke (1555)
Calvin’s call to follow Christ happened in his time of studies. He believed the study of scripture gives light. When he was called to Geneva he was famous for his ability to write well. They did not needed someone to bring the reforms, the reformation had already reached the city, but the Bernese church council, which by that time had introduced its church order already was looking for someone to write everything down in French and bring the reformation in Savoyen and the French speaking west states of the Swiss confederation to a full success. In addition because of its strategic position for business they wanted politically and economically develop Geneva for a future in freedom and a good relationship with the Swiss confederation. Farel and Calvin had a hard time with authority above them and a city council, which gave orders. By disrespecting public orders they definitely did not set a good example for the citizens. They both were released from their responsibilities and had to leave. Somehow God used this to expand Calvin’s network in Strasbourg and give him some time for scientific work and to develop even more skills. It did not take long and he was invited back again. However, Without the Swiss Confederations church’ care Calvin would not have been invited to Geneva, to continue developing his “Institutio Christianae” and challenged to write and edit so many commentaries, to found a theological school, initiate (bible) printing societies with bibles in several European languages including French (Bible de Genève, by Pierre Robert Olivétan) and English (Geneva Bible, by William Whittingham). He taught people from Scotland and England to develop the foundation for an international mission movement overseas. The Bernese churches appointed Farel and through the city council of Geneva Calvin for their ministry otherwise Calvin might have stayed in Strasbourg until his death to pastor a French immigrant church and write some books.
But the LORD of Harvest who is good in making something special out of small things had other plans.
2. John Wesley’s Call and Focus
John Wesley was the founder of the Methodist movement and a Church of England cleric and Christian theologian. In contrast to George Whitefield's Calvinism, Wesley embraced the Arminian doctrines that were dominant in the 18th-century Church of England.
2.1 John Wesley’ Timeline:
As the fifteenth child of Samuel Wesley and Susanna Annesley, John in his childhood faced a terrible incident. At the tender age of 5, he was rescued from the burning church house. This incident left a deep impression on his mind and he started considering himself to be a fortunate being or one who was set apart, quoting Zechariah 3:2. 
• 1703 - John Wesley was born, in Epworth, which is 23 miles from Lincoln, England.
• 1708 - Rescued from the burning church house
• 1726 - Elected a fellow of Lincoln College
• 1728 - Ordained as a priest
• 1735 - Had first experience with the Moravians
• 1738 - Moved to Herrenhut, the Moravian headquarters in Germany, to study
• 1739 - Inspired by George Whitefield's first preaching in the open air
• 1739 - Cut off from the Moravians in London
• 1739 - Persecuted by Clergymen and magistrates
• 1741 - Separation of Whitefield and Wesley
• 1743 - Wrote a set of doctrine called 'General Rules' for the 'United Societies', which formed the nucleus of the Methodist Discipline
• 1744 - Held the first Methodist conference
• 1746 Appointed helpers, so that the preachers would work more systematically
• 1751 - Married Mary Vazeille
• 1778 - Founded 'The Arminian Magazine'
• 1784 - Ordained preachers for Scotland, England and America, giving them power to administer the sacraments
• 1791 – Taken up for “higher services”
During Wesley's early adult years he was greatly influenced by the classic books: Jeremy Taylor's Holy Living and Holy Dying, Thomas a Kempis' The Imitation of Christ, and William Law's two books Christian Perfection and A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life. Though John had joined his brother Charles' Holy Club, a group that was hailed as the Methodists in Oxford, the belief did not last long.
2.2 With Moravians to Savannah – Wesley’s trial
On 14 October 1735, Wesley and his brother Charles sailed on The Simmonds from Gravesend, Kent for Savannah in the Province of Georgia in the American colonies at the request of Governor James Oglethorpe. Oglethorpe wanted Wesley to be the minister of the newly formed Savannah parish. It was on the voyage to the colonies that the Wesley’s first came into contact with Moravian settlers. Wesley was influenced by their deep faith and spirituality rooted in pietism. At one point in the voyage a storm came up and broke the mast off the ship. While the English panicked, the Moravians calmly sang hymns and prayed. This experience led Wesley to believe that the Moravians possessed an inner strength, which he lacked. Wesley had learned from the Moravians that true faith was inseparably connected with dominion over sin and constant peace proceeding from a sense of forgiveness, and that saving faith is given in a moment.
After the voyage they reached Savannah on 8 February 1736, where Wesley saw Oglethorpe's offer as an opportunity to spread Christianity to the Native Americans in the colony. Wesley's mission, however, was unsuccessful, and he and his brother Charles were constantly beset by troubles in the colonies. As Wesley's spiritual state is the key to his whole career, an account of his conversion in the year of his return from Georgia may not be omitted. On top of his struggles with teaching, Wesley found disaster in his relations with Sophia Hopkey, a woman who had journeyed across the Atlantic on the same ship as Wesley. Wesley and Hopkey became romantically involved, but Wesley abruptly broke off the relationship on the advice of a Moravian minister in whom he confided. Hopkey contended that Wesley had promised to marry her and therefore had gone back on his word in breaking off the relationship.  Wesley stood trial and faced the accusations made by Hopkey. The proceedings ended in a mistrial, but Wesley's reputation had already been tarnished too greatly. He made it known that he intended to return to England. He went back to England to earn money for a church.
1.2 Exploring Moravian Theology
On returning to England from the new colony of Georgia, where John's view of high-church aroused resentment, in 1735, John's ship faced a terrible storm. Wesley returned to England depressed and beaten. It was at this point that he turned to the Moravians. In 1738, John Wesley headed to Herrnhut, the Moravian headquarters in Germany, to study. The deeply personal religion that the Moravian pietists practiced heavily influenced Wesley's theology of Methodism. The story of Moravian missions emerges out of their past with another set of origins. Influenced by the writings of John Wycliffe and the testimony of the Waldensian Church tradition, the young Jan Hus (1373-1415) headed a reform movement at Charles University in Prague. He was ex-communicated by the Pope in 1411 and burned at the stake on July 6, 1415 in Constance for criticizing corruption, indulgences, one substance of communion and reciting mass and Scriptures in his native Bohemian. His martyrdom became entwined in Bohemian nationalism and pre-reformation humanist claims giving birth to two Hussite movements: the Taborites and the Utraquists. While the former had more radical demands and left the Catholic Church, the latter (from the Latin sub utraque specie meaning “of both kinds”) remained with the Catholic structure struggling for Eucharist reform and eventually evolving into the Moravian Church. The Unitas Fratrum (Unity of Brethren) was founded on March 1, 1457 in Kunwald, Bohemia. After Protestant forces were defeated in battle during the Thirty Year War (1618- 1648) in what is today the Czech Republic and a period of oppression began for Protestants in Bohemia and Moravia. 
2.3 Conversion, the Time with the Moravians and Fetter Lane Society
For ten years he had fought against sin, striven to fulfill the law of the Gospel, endeavored to manifest his righteousness; but he had not, he wrote, obtained freedom from sin, nor the witness of the Spirit, because he sought it, not by faith, but " by the works of the law."
This saving faith he obtained May 24, 1737-38, at a Moravian meeting in Aldersgate Street, London, while listening to the reading of Luther's preface to the Epistle to the Romans, in which explanation of faith and the doctrine of justification by faith is given.  Though he met the Fetter Lane Society, along with other religious organizations, and published a collection of hymns for them, he did not preach often in 1738, because most of the parish churches did not want him. In 1739, Wesley cut off from the Moravians in London. 
2.4 Persecutions, Laymen recruiting, Preaching and Growth
Wesley was unhappy about the idea of open field preaching, as he believed the Anglican Church had much to offer in its practice. Earlier he thought that such a method of saving souls was "almost a sin." In 1739 John gave his first sermon, in open air, near Bristol.
John found that open-air services were successful in reaching men and women, who would not enter most churches. John capitalized on this realization and preached wherever gathering could be formed. 
2.5 Chapels & Organizations, Ordination of Ministers
John Wesley realized the need for a house of worship and built chapels in Bristol and London. He was the sole head of these organizations. He also adopted a method by which he did issue tickets, or commendatory letters, to the members, in every three months. After reading the Lord King on the Primitive Church, Wesley was convinced that the concept of the apostolic succession in the Anglican Church was a fiction. While some attacked them in sermons, the others resorted to do so in print. Reluctant to let innocent people die because of the sins of clergymen, John preached in the fields, along with his followers.  In 1744, he held a meeting, along with his brother, four clergymen and four preachers, known as the first Methodist conference. In it, they discussed the working of the group, which had grown dramatically.
This expansion of lay preachers was the sole reason for the growth of Methodism. After waiting for a long time, for the Bishop of London to ordain, Wesley himself ordained preachers for Scotland, England and America giving them power to administer the sacraments in 1784 by himself. While Dr. Thomas Coke was appointed as a superintendent of Methodists in the United States, Wesley ordained Richard Whatcoat and Thomas Vasey as presbyters.
2.6 Advocacy of Arminianism, Doctrines and Theology
For John Wesley, the Holy Bible was the only foundation of theological or doctrinal development. Tradition was the second-most important aspect of the theology, and yet by optimistically embracing humanist Arminianism he apparently did not stick with that principle. Wesley lectured on the doctrine of personal salvation by faith and the witness of God's Spirit, with the belief that a person was a child of God. Much unlike the Calvinists, Wesley did not believe in pre-destination. Wesley believed that his doctrine should be constantly preached, especially among the people called Methodists.  In contrast to Whitefield's belief in Calvinism, Wesley believed in Arminianism. When in 1739 Wesley preached a sermon on Freedom of Grace, attacking the Calvinistic understanding of predestination as blasphemous, as it represented "God as worse than the devil," Whitefield asked him not to repeat or publish the discourse, as he did not want a dispute.  He entered controversies as he tried to enlarge church practice. The most notable of his controversies was that on Calvinism. His father was of the Arminian school in the church. Wesley came to his own conclusions while in college and expressed himself strongly against the doctrines of Calvinistic election and reprobation. He wrote that those who held to unlimited atonement did not desire separation, but "those who held 'particular redemption' would not hear of any accommodation."
2.7 Personal Lifestyle, Marriage and Burial Place
John Wesley was continuously on the move, stopping only to preach two or three times a day. In his lifetime, John had done a number of things, like forming societies, constructing chapels, examining and commissioning preachers, administering aid charities, prescribing medicine for the sick, helping to pioneer the use of electric shock for the treatment of illness and supervising schools and orphanages. He rose at four in the morning, lived simply and methodically, and was never idle, unless by compulsion. In person he was rather under the medium height, well proportioned, strong, with a bright eye, a clear complexion, and a saintly, intellectual face. Despite his wishes, Wesley married at the age of forty-eight to a widow, Mary Vazeille. He married very unhappily, at the age of forty-eight, a widow, and had no children. The couple had no children. After fifteen years of marriage, Vazeille died.
He died peacefully and poor on March 2, 1791, after a short illness in which he had great spiritual peace and joy, leaving as the result of his life-work 135,000 members, and 541 itinerant preachers, owning the name " Methodist." Wesley was buried in a small graveyard, behind Wesley's Chapel on City Road, London.
2.8 His Works In overview:
Wesley was a logical thinker and expressed himself clearly, concisely and forcefully in writing. His written sermons are characterized by spiritual earnestness and simplicity. They are doctrinal but not dogmatic. His Notes on the New Testament (1755) is enlightening. Both the Sermons (about 140) and the Notes are doctrinal standards. Wesley was a fluent, powerful and effective preacher. He usually preached spontaneously and briefly, though occasionally at great length. The number of works he wrote, translated, or edited, exceeds 200. The list includes sermons, commentaries, hymns, a Christian library of fifty volumes, and other religious literature-grammars, dictionaries, and other textbooks as well as political tracts. He is said to have received not less than £20,000 for his publications, but he used little of it for himself. His charities were limited only by his means.
As an organizer, a religious leader and a statesman, he was eminent. He knew how to lead and control men to achieve his purposes. He used his power, not to provoke rebellion, but to inspire love. His mission was to spread "Scriptural holiness"; his means and plans were such as Providence indicated. The course thus mapped out for him he pursued with a determination from which nothing could distract him.
Wesley's prose Works were first collected by himself. In addition to his Sermons and Notes are his Journals. Wesley adapted the Book of Common Prayer for use by American Methodists. In his Watch Night service, he made use of a Pietism prayer now generally known as the Wesley Covenant Prayer, perhaps his most famous contribution to Christian liturgy. He also was a noted hymn-writer, translator and compiler of a hymnal In spite of the proliferation of his literary output, Wesley was challenged for plagiarism for borrowing heavily from an essay by Samuel Johnson, publishing in March 1775. Initially denying the charge, Wesley later recanted and apologized officially. As a brilliant organizer, he formed societies throughout England, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland. One of the best works of Wesley was when he appointed itinerant, un-ordained preachers to evangelize and care for people in the societies. This way, he brought more people to the church, apart from spreading salvation. Wesley wanted every Christian to attain the status of perfect love, wherein the love of God and neighbor would reign in the hearts of people. For about half decade, Wesley preached in the fields, halls, cottages, chapels and in churches that would allow him entry.
John Wesley in his self-understanding was apparently strongly influenced by his 5 yrs old burning accident. He believed the purpose of Zechariah 3:2 was linked to his special mission. Accordingly he did invest his life for others to be saved from the “burning fire of hell” at all costs and probably broke every known record of his generation of traveling for evangelistic purposes.
In his early years he was greatly influenced by the classic books: Jeremy Taylor's Holy Living and Holy Dying, Thomas a Kempis' The Imitation of Christ, and William Law's two books Christian Perfection and A Serious Call to a Devout and Holy Life. In his mission work in New England he did not demonstrate the ability to bridge cultural fences spiritually. Under Wesley's direction, Methodists became leaders in many social issues of the day, including the prison reform and abolitionism movements. In his theology he was initially influenced by the Central European Moravian brethren, who formerly were theologically fed by the heritage of Jan Hus, in his decision to embrace Arminianism likely influenced by his father and the classic books of his early adult years together. Wesley's contribution as a theologian was to propose a system of opposing theological stances. His greatest theological achievement was his promotion of what he termed "Christian Perfection", or holiness of heart and life. With the knowledge of all those various concepts in mind he tried to face the challenge of bringing people without Christ back to church and developed a certain method and a some own convictions about grace. His concept of grace therefore is worded in a way that someone easily could think grace is only granted in full measure, if someone becomes willing to live an enough holy life. – This could be in reaction to wounds and the own inner blessures he had suffered but also the grace and the piece he experienced when he allowed Christ to fully take over the shaping of his life. Wesley held that, in this life, Christians could come to a state in which the love of God, or perfect love, reigned supreme in their hearts. His evangelical theology, especially his understanding of Christian perfection, was firmly grounded in his sacramental theology.
He continually insisted on the general use of the means of grace (prayer, scripture, meditation, Holy Communion, etc.) as the means by which God sanctifies and transforms the believer. In addition, he refined Arminianism with a strong evangelical emphasis on the Reformed doctrine of justification by faith.
3.Comparing John Calvin’s and John Wesley’s Teachings
John Calvin (1509-1564) lived 200 years before John Wesley (1703 -1791). What are the basic differences between Calvinist theology and Methodist theology? . This question reaches further than any one document or answer can touch upon. There is simply too much history between the two schools of thought to formulate an unbiased answer, and if the truth were to be known, both schools are as divided inwardly as they are between one another Wesleyans are often surprised to discover how Reformed John Wesley is in his understanding of original sin and salvation.
For example, John Wesley does not believe people have an inherent power as the result of prevenient grace to exercise saving faith at any given moment, to decide when and where they will commit their lives to Christ, as is implied often in contemporary Wesleyan circles. The fact is there is so much common ground between John Wesley and John
Calvin that Wesley himself claimed his position was within a “hair’s breadth” of Calvinism. The purpose of our paper is to explore the Calvinism of Wesley, which separates him from many of his heirs in the Wesleyan tradition, and to identify ultimately where he distinguishes himself from the Reformed tradition.
3.1 Calvin’s View of Predestination – the creation of the TULIP model
Calvin was like Luther a theologian of the word (sola scriptura). This means that he worked and created dogmatic teaching through careful biblical exegesis. The sovereign God is the determining principle of his theology. According to Calvin the glory of God is the purpose of creation. The history is determined by the salvation of the elect and the punishment of the wicked. God gives his creatures an area of creativity and directs everything to his goal. For Calvin it remains an impenetrable mystery, why God destined “some for salvation and others to perdition"  He is using the word “destined” because he comes from the picture of the sovereign God, who is in control of everything. He speaks the last word. Calvin’s theory of Predestination deals with God's arrangement for individuals in eternity. People will not all reach their origin purpose and therefore their future is determined differently, some are granted eternal life, others according to their decision not to give God glory, will be granted eternal damnation (separation).
Calvin makes clear that predestination grows out of God’s divine pleasure only and at no point depends on anticipated foreseen human merits or any other external cause. Only those who fulfill their duties faithfully can hope for salvation. This means to live strictly according to the Bible and to faithfully fulfill the obligations. Here, Calvin in contrast to Luther regards both the Old and New Testaments, as not only related, but also absolutely equal in importance.
Calvin's teachings on Predestination are known by most today as the Five Points of Calvinism and often remembered by the acronym TULIP: 
Five Points of Calvinism
· Total Depravity (Original Sin). All people are born into sin as a result of the sin of Adam in the Garden of Eden. This sin has affected all parts of us (our heart, emotions, will, mind, and body). We are completely sinful and have no merit in ourselves apart from the grace God provides.
· Unconditional Election. God does not base His election on anything He sees in the individual. He chooses the elect according to His own will and mercy with no consideration of merit within the individual.
· Limited Atonement. This idea holds that Jesus died only for the elect. Although His sacrifice was sufficient for all people, Jesus only bore the sins of the elect.
· Irresistible Grace. This teaching holds that when God calls someone He has elected to salvation, they cannot resist. The message of the gospel is proclaimed to all people (the external call), but the elect receive an internal call as well, and it cannot be resisted. This call is by the Holy Spirit who works in the hearts and minds of the elect to bring them to repentance.
· Perseverance of the Saints - Since God has decreed the elect, and they cannot resist grace, they are unconditionally and eternally secure in that election.
Calvinism was based around the absolute power and supremacy of God. The world was created so that mankind might get to know the Creator. Calvin taught that man is sinful and in need to approach God through faith in Christ - not through mass and pilgrimages. Calvin considered the New Testament, baptism and the Eucharist exist as divine guidance for man to live in faith. According to Calvin, a mankind who faces its holy creator has is realizing its sinfulness.
However, God had chosen (elected) men before the world began already (the Elect) to enjoy him and a had plan to have man experiencing eternal salvation, while others through their personal rejection of this plan and their detest to give glory according to their choice would finally experience suffering and everlasting damnation. In Calvin’s teaching they were called the Reprobates. The chosen (the Elect) are only saved by grace, which can never be earned by Man’s merits.
Dennis Bratcher remarks this five points are the heart of Calvinism (Reformed Tradition) and were developed from the Synod of Dordtrecht in 1618-19 in response to the Remonstrant’s' (followers of James Arminius) five points that challenged Reformed orthodoxy, especially the double predestination of Theodore Beza, a follower of John Calvin. Since Calvin's theological system was much broader than these five points.
The likeability to understand it wrong is high. In fact, TULIP was developed 50 years after Calvin and therefore should be taken with caution are representing Calvin’s predestination theory. The purpose of these five points was to encapsulate the Calvinist/Reformed position against Arminius and later John Wesley, not to explain Calvin’s predestination theory in depth.
3.2 Calvin Development of Biblical Church structures
Soon Geneva rose to the status of Protestant Rom. Calvin understood the Reformation as the establishment of the kingdom of God on earth. The Christian church should be supportive to establish God’s Kingdom. In the Geneva Church Ordinance Calvin defined the structures for it in four church offices:
1. Pastors (ministers) for preaching and pastoral care,
2.Teachers (docteurs) for teaching,
3 Elders (ANCI) for church discipline,
4.The Deacons (Diacre) for the poor.
The clergy should weekly meet for the study of Scripture and four times a year should held meetings for mutual correction. The church constitution defines moral discipline, time and the place for preaching, administering the sacraments, marriage, funerals, visiting the sick and prisoners, and care for the children. The civil authorities met Calvin's plan to provide the church with its own administration, met first with resistance. The possibility of a conflict of interest was in the weekly meeting of elders and clerics at the consistory. It was a means of church discipline.
The twelve lay elders, elected by the City Senate, were political representatives. The consistory should both punish deviations from the teachings, moral failure and also the neglect of church attendance. As the most extreme penalty allowed for the Church was to exclude people from the Lord’s Supper. The city senate claimed to be the highest judicial authority in secular and ecclesiastical cases.  There were also changes in the social sector. The problem with the poor people in Geneva was tackled and for the many refugees from France jobs created. This influx of religious refugees played an important role. Between the years 1541 and 1564, Calvin's position strengthened. Through his preaching and teaching Calvin was seeking to bring it under the lordship of Jesus and authority of his Word. In the 1550s John Calvin saw the population of his city of Geneva double as Christians fled there from persecution. One of those refugees who came to Geneva was the Englishman John Bale, who wrote, “Geneva seems to me to be the wonderful miracle of the whole world. God in his loving providence forced Geneva to become a short-term training ground in missions, where Christians from varying cultures lived together under the teaching of John Calvin and had to determine for themselves what to receive, reject, and redeem from their culture so as to effectively contextualize the gospel and do evangelism.
Zwingli in Europe along with Martin Luther was leading the reformation in the Alemannic German speaking world (including Alsace, Strasbourg, South West Germany, East of Bavaria, Austria, German speaking Swiss Confederation, parts of Italy and the Netherlands), Calvin is regarded as the third important and most important figure of the second generation Protestant Reformers. Calvin is credited with helping to bring about the rise of capitalism and democracy, which emerged from his theological teaching and helped to shape the entire Western world. Movements such as Puritanism, as well as the modern-day Presbyterian and Reformed churches, follow in his legacy. 
3.3 The Calvinism of John Wesley
At the time of John Wesley’s ministry, the Anglican Church’s thirty nine Articles of Religion quickly reveals the Church’s doctrine is shaped by the Calvinist tradition with prominent “Reformed Articles” on both free-will and predestination. As an Anglican clergyman the Calvinist influence in Wesley’s theology are most visible in his doctrines of original sin and of saving faith, two basics doctrines of Reform Theology
Chart1: Doctrines of Reform Theology in Lutheranism, Calvinism and Wesleyanism 
Summary of three different Protestant views about salvation:
Human will and depravity
Total Depravity without free will until spiritual regeneration.
Total Depravity free will means the capacity to choose freely what one wants; but totally depraved individuals never want to choose God prior to regeneration.
Unconditional election to salvation only
Unconditional election to salvation and damnation (double-predestination)
Conditional election on the basis of foreseen faith or unbelief
Justification of all people completed at Christ's death
Justification is limited to those predestined to salvation, completed at Christ's death
Monergistic, through the inner calling of the Holy Spirit, irresistible
Synergistic, by prevenient grace, must be received, resistible due to the common, sufficient grace of free will
Preservation and apostasy
Falling away is possible, but reflection on Christ's redemption of sinners provides assurance of preservation
Perseverance of the saints: the eternally elect in Christ will necessarily persevere in faith and subsequent holiness until the end
Preservation is conditional upon continued faith in Christ; reflection on one's faith provides assurance
Type of Theology
Theology of Redemption
Theology of Covenant
Theology of Grace
3.3.1 Understanding of Original Sin
John Wesley was in complete agreement with John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and Martin Luther in his understanding of original sin. Wesley taught that as a result of the fall the moral image of God (holiness, righteousness, love, and connection or relationship to God) is completely destroyed in humanity. Human beings in their natural state are spiritually dead to God, thoroughly sinful, helpless to change themselves, and incapable of even being aware of their state. If human beings are going to be saved God is the One who must take the initiative. If human beings are to be awakened, convicted of their sin, exercise faith to appropriate the new birth, then God must do the work, because humanity has no internal resources from which to draw to move themselves toward God and progress in the way of salvation. Wesley taught there are small remnants of the natural image and political image of God remaining, enabling humanity to retain some degree of rationality. However, none of these “vestiges” for Luther, Calvin and Wesley can offer any resources in the work of salvation. The way to resolve the problem with sin is to take advantage of the prevenient grace. For Wesley prevenient grace in itself does not restore to people the ability to exercise faith, much less express repentance—these are works of God not men and women.
Prevenient grace enables a person to cooperate with God’s grace made available through the means of grace that seeks to convict a person of sin, convince a person of the need for Christ, and create saving faith. Thus, to Wesley all prevenient grace enables a person to do is choose to cooperate with these further works of grace or not. Grace from this perspective is the work of the Holy Spirit in us. As the Gospel is being shared, grace is at work inside people, a work that is not humanly generated but of God and it is drawing people, convincing people of the truth that Christ died for them, and compelling them to give their lives to Christ.
As such, faith is not a human act so much as a result of cooperating with the “grace” of God at work in people. All people have done in the moment of conversion is cooperate with what is being wrought in them. To Wesley the choice is not to believe or not, it is to resist or submit to God’s grace. Unless the Spirit is working, true saving faith is not possible. As such, only in moments when the Holy Spirit is enabling saving faith in an individual can a person be converted. This is why Wesley can state, “any man may come (to be saved), but not whenever he wants.”
3.3.2 Saving Faith a Gift of Divine Grace
Wesley believed that human beings are saved by grace through faith. Wesley, Calvin and Luther each forcefully contend that trying to believe or even choosing to believe does not achieve “saving faith”, but it is a gift of God. As a result of original sin, human beings cannot work up faith on their own. The best people can do in their sinful state is exercise unbelief, they cannot exercise faith. To “believe” is a gift given to human beings by God—on this Luther, Calvin, Zwingli and Wesley agree. Like Calvin and Luther, Wesley taught that “saving faith” is a “divine conviction.” Specifically, he believed a person cannot be saved unless the Holy Spirit in a given moment is in that moment drawing, convicting, and convincing a person of salvation in Christ and God’s desire for that individual to be saved (which is, in fact, saving “faith”).
If the Spirit is not doing this work, a person cannot come to Christ. Wesley’s “faith” here was not so much an action he took, rather it was something happening inside of him, a divine work creating an internal conviction that Christ loved him. It is his heart being acted upon by an outside force that created personal faith in Christ. This understanding of Wesley’s experience is substantiated further by the fact that before Aldersgate, Peter Bohler had already convinced John Wesley that salvation was “by grace through faith,” and he had begun to preach this message before Aldersgate. In a sense, Wesley was intellectually convinced of the truth, but he still struggled with belief until his Aldersgate experience. For Wesley, it is grace, or the work of the Spirit, that convinces human hearts. It is grace that creates faith in human hearts. ON this he agrees with Luther and Calvin.
Fig. 2: Contrasting Positions on Original Sin and Grace and Reformed Theology
Man is born innocent. Adam’s sin affected only himself
No special grace needed
Human monergism: man initiates his own salvation
Charles Finney, Modern Liberals
Man is born spiritually weak. No imputation of Adam’s sin
Man cooperates with God’s grace
Synergism: God and man cooperate
Total depravity (?) and total inability (hypothetical). Imputation of Adam’s sin usually denied
Prevenient grace leads to cooperation
Yes: as a result of prevenient grace
Synergism: God and man cooperate
Total depravity and total inability. Imputation of Adam’s sin
No: free only to follow his own nature
Divine monergism: God alone saves; man participates
Evangelicals, Fundamentalist, Mennonites, Baptists, Lutherans, Reformed Church
If human beings are totally dependent upon God’s grace for “saving faith” the question must be asked, “How does God communicate His grace to people?” Again, Wesley answers with Calvin and Luther that God communicates his grace through the “means of grace.” As people are exposed to the means of grace or as they place themselves in the flow of the means of grace (as they hear the Gospel, partake in baptism and Holy Communion, and participate in the Body of Christ), grace capable of creating saving faith is made available.
However, in contrast to the Roman Catholic tradition (which teaches that grace is always communicated to the recipients of the means of grace) John Wesley along with the Reformers did not believe that participation in the means of grace always guarantees the transmission of grace to each participant. John Wesley agrees essentially with Luther and Calvin on the means of grace.
3.4 Wesley’s special Doctrines differing from Calvinism
The Arminian background of John Wesley convictions and its imbedding in Reformed Theology . The Arminian theology usually falls into one of two groups — the Classical Arminianism, drawn from the teaching of Jacobus Arminius — and Wesleyan Arminian, drawing primarily from Wesley. Both groups overlap substantially.
Chart 3: Origin of Calvin and Wesley’s Salvation Perspectives in Comparison: 
Foundation laid by Church fathers
Foundation laid by Arminius
Total Depravity - Human beings are so affected by the negative consequences of original sin that they are incapable of being righteous, and are always and unchangeably sinful; human freedom is totally enslaved by sin so we can only choose evil.
Deprivation - Human beings are sinful and without God, incapable (deprived) on their own of being righteous; however, they are not irredeemably sinful and can be transformed by God’s grace; God's prevenient grace restores to humanity the freedom of will.
Unconditional Election - Since human beings cannot choose for themselves, God by His eternal decree has chosen or elected some to be counted as righteous, without any conditions being placed on that election.
Conditional Election - God has chosen that all humanity be righteous by His grace, yet has called us to respond to that grace by exercising our God-restored human freedom as a condition of fulfilling election.
Limited Atonement - The effects of the Atonement, by which God forgave sinful humanity, are limited only to those whom He has chosen.
Unlimited Atonement - The effects of the Atonement are freely available to all those whom He has chosen, which includes all humanity, "whosoever will."
Irresistible Grace - The grace that God extends to human beings to effect their election cannot be refused, since God has decreed it.
Resistible Grace - God’s grace is free and offered without merit; however, human beings have been granted freedom by God and can refuse His grace.
Perseverance of the Saints - Since God has decreed the elect, and they cannot resist grace, they are unconditionally and eternally secure in that election.
Assurance and Security - There is security in God’s grace that allows assurance of salvation, but that security is in relation to continued faithfulness; we can still defiantly reject God.
Application in Great Commission:
France, Swiss-Confederation, Italy, Germany, Savoyen, Brazil, Scotland, England, Poland, Hongrie, Austria, The Netherlands, Bohemia,
Application of Great Commission:
England, Scotland, British Isles, U.S.A.
Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought within Protestant Christianity based on the theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic followers, the Remonstrant’s. The doctrine's acceptance stretches through much of Christianity from the early arguments between Athanasius and Origen, to Augustine of Hippo's defense of "original sin." Dutch Arminianism was originally articulated in the Remonstrance (1610), a theological statement signed by 45 ministers and submitted to the Dutch states general. The Synod of Dort (1618–19) was called by the states general to pass upon the Remonstrance. The five points of the Remonstrance asserted that: The crux of Remonstrant Arminianism lays in the assertion that human dignity requires an unimpaired freedom of the will. This view is in conflict with Lutheranism and origin Calvinism.
Wesley departs from Classical Arminianism primarily on three issues:
· Atonement – Wesley's atonement is a hybrid of the penal substitution theory and the governmental theory of Hugo Grotius, a lawyer and one of the Remonstrant’s. Steven Harper states "Wesley does not place the substitionary element primarily within a legal framework...Rather [his doctrine seeks] to bring into proper relationship the 'justice' between God's love for persons and God's hatred of sin...it is not the satisfaction of a legal demand for justice so much as it is an act of mediated reconciliation." 
· Possibility of apostasy – Wesley fully accepted the Arminian view that genuine Christians could apostatize and lose their salvation, as his famous sermon "A Call to Backsliders" clearly demonstrates. Harper summarizes as follows: "the act of committing sin is not in itself ground for the loss of salvation...the loss of salvation is much more related to experiences that are profound and prolonged. Wesley sees two primary pathways that could result in a permanent fall from grace: unconfessed sin and the actual expression of apostasy."  Wesley disagrees with Arminius, however, in maintaining that such apostasy was not final. When talking about those who have made "shipwreck" of their faith (1 Tim 1:19), Wesley claims that "not one, or a hundred only, but I am persuaded, several thousands...innumerable are the instances...of those who had fallen but now stand upright."
· Christian perfection – According to Wesley's teaching, Christians could attain a state of practical perfection, meaning a lack of all voluntary sin by the empowerment of the Holy Spirit, in this life. Christian perfection (or entire sanctification), according to Wesley, is "purity of intention, dedicating all the life to God" and "the mind which was in Christ, enabling us to walk as Christ walked." It is "loving God with all our heart, and our neighbor as ourselves". It is 'a restoration not only to the favor, but likewise to the image of God," our "being filled with the fullness of God".
Wesleyan Arminianism comes from John Wesley. He has historically been the most influential advocate for the teachings of Arminian soteriology. Wesley thoroughly agreed with the vast majority of what Arminius himself taught, maintaining strong doctrines of original sin, total depravity, conditional election, prevenient grace, unlimited atonement, and possibly apostasy. For Wesley it was clear that Christian perfection did not imply perfection of bodily health or an infallibility of judgment. It also does not mean we no longer violate the will of God, for involuntary transgressions remain. Perfected Christians remain subject to temptation, and have continued need to pray for forgiveness and holiness. It is not an absolute perfection but perfecting love.
Furthermore, Wesley did not teach a salvation by perfection, but rather says that, "Even perfect holiness is acceptable to God only through Jesus Christ." Wesleyan- Arminian believes either imply or explicitly teach that faith is an inherent power within human beings as a result of the prevenient grace given to all of humanity. As such, human beings have the ability in any given moment to exercise their will to believe the Gospel and be saved. From this perspective, people at any time may hear the Gospel, weigh the strengths and weaknesses of the argument offered and chose to follow Christ. Thus, faith and a personal response to the Gospel, is primarily something a person does. They believe. They decide. They receive.
3.3 Conclusion of Comparison between Calvinism – Methodism/Wesleyanism
Ever since Arminius and his followers revolted against Calvinism in the early 17th century, Protestant soteriology has been largely divided between Calvinism and Arminianism. The extreme of Calvinism is hyper-Calvinism, which insists that signs of election must be sought before evangelization of the unregenerate takes place and that the eternally damned have no obligation to repent and believe, and on the extreme of Arminianism is Pelagianism, which rejects the doctrine of original sin on grounds of moral accountability; but the overwhelming majority of Protestant, evangelical pastors and theologians hold to one of these two systems or somewhere in between. Total depravity– Arminians agree with Calvinists over the doctrine of total depravity. The differences come in the understanding of how God remedies this human depravity.
For many Calvinist Reformed Theologians by embracing Arminianism in principle the “sola scriptura” was called into question, and was seen as a compromise with men-centered humanism.
While Calvin comes from the understanding of a sovereign Creator God who always has the last word and elects sinful men for his fellowship, John Wesley loves to teach how grace is effective to perfect believers and convicts sinners.
The real challenge for John Wesley apparently was to defend his changed Arminianism despite its humanistic content.
In the coming chapter we will see how much this helped for mission.
4 John Calvin’s and John Wesley’s Missiology compared
4.1 Calvin’s Missiology – The Exegetical and Historical Evaluation
Calvinistic or Reformed theology is based on the notions of sola scriptura, sola Christum, including teaching the need of personal conversion, Bible translation and its distribution as the cornerstones even for Calvinistic mission today
4.1.1 Calvinistic Missiology proclaims Trinitarian Mission (missio Dei trinitatis).
One of the reasons for the unwillingness to engage in missionary work in some circles has to do with an exegetical issue. Theodor Beza, the successor of Calvin, was of the opinion that Matthew 28:16–20 was only meant for the apostles. Due to this exegesis, many Reformed churches were unwilling to obey the commission of the Lord. Adrianus Saravia (1531–1613) eventually convinced most Calvinists exegetically that this text was a commission to the church of all times. This exegetical insight of Saravia paved the way for the Reformed churches to become involved in the missio Dei trinitatis. Since the 17th century, the Reformed churches were involved in missionary work on a massive scale. There have been some very fine attempts at revealing Calvin’s concern for the world and the church’s calling to take the gospel to the world. Some fresh examples are Coleman’s treatment of a selection of Calvin’s sermons which clearly reveals a particular understanding of mission, Stewart who deals with the under-representation of mission in Calvinism or Protestantism at large and a fine interpretation by Mc Kee  of Calvin’s understanding of 1 Timothy 2:1-2, with specific reference to the reformer’s teaching that Christians should pray “for all people who live on earth”. For our missiological perspective this means to regard the Bible as a missionary book. This is a faith perspective, which believes in the Trinitarian God as a God in mission who responds to the humanly constructed world in terms of redescribing it and indeed changing it. In simple terms, Botha thinks, the challenge in reading and interpreting Calvin missiology is to see whether theological ideas expounded in the sixteenth century could be called into service in deconstructing, re-describing and changing the church and the world of the 21st century.
4.1.2 Conversion as a central piece of Calvinist Missiology
Many people, including some missiologists, believe that conversion is an outdated idea and should no longer form part of a church's missionary effort. Biblical-Reformed missiology, however, never abandoned its need. There is no way to neglect the biblical texts that clearly expect of people to 'convert themselves' or 'to turn around' or to 'turn away from sin and evil' or to 'turn to God'. Obedience to texts such as Matthew 28 must remain part of any Reformed missiology. Conversion has become problematic, and even a controversial point of discussion among many Christians. Since the Enlightenment, the notion of 'conversion' has been hotly disputed amongst Reformed theologians. One reason was that the Enlightenment insisted that the religions of revelation should be compared to the natural religions. Theologians were asked to compare Christ to people such people like Socrates and Confucius. By doing so, one accepts the belief that Christ is not the absolute, unique redeemer and savior. The consequence of this is that one accepts that all good heathen will go to heaven due to God's general grace. There would be no need for a Christology and soteriology, and consequently no need for mission either. Calvinistic missiology reacted in a variety of ways to this crisis. Many Calvinists followed the route of the German Graf von Zinzendorf. According to him, the church should no longer concentrate on the corpus Christianum (the ideal to create a Christian society). We should only try to 'save receptive souls for the Lamb'. We should simply rely on the work of the Holy Spirit in 'bringing individuals to Jesus' and to leave the masses alone. They also followed his advice to go abroad, where the Enlightenment had not yet happened. There, the church could still follow an offensive strategy because at home all that was left was a defensive strategy, which in reality was not mission.
4.1.3 Developments of Calvin’s Immigrant Missiology
Before 1555, Calvinism was growing but had not yet gained official status except in Geneva and the tiny Kingdom of Navarre, on the French side of the Pyrenees. It was not even recognized as an option by the German princes in the Peace of Augsburg (1555). Among European governing elites, it was generally regarded with suspicion if not contempt. The most promising area for growth was France, Calvin's own homeland. His message attracted many members of the urban middle classes, who had begun to feel alienated from both church and state. Missionaries from Geneva carried Calvin's message to France where the church was organized in a national system of congregations and synods. French Calvinists, or Huguenots as they were called, made up an aggressive minority of discontented nobles and middle-class urban citizens. The new movement also enlisted a large proportion of women, drawn by opportunities for direct participation in the services. Many joined reading groups, where they discussed the Bible and theological issues.
Early Calvinist women worked diligently for the cause, not only converting their husbands and families but also founding religious schools, nursing the sick, and aiding the poor. Strasbourg, in the 1530s, was a free center for Protestant reformers such as Matthew Zell and his wife, Katherine, who befriended many Calvinist preachers, including Martin Bucer, the missionary to England during the reign of Edward VI.In the same period, Calvinism was a belief that was dependent on the strength of the individual. Geneva became the most influential city in the Protestant movement. It represented the city where religion had been most truly reformed and changed for the better. John Knox, the Scottish Protestant leader, called Geneva "the most perfect school of Christ."  Geneva’s impact on Europe was huge for two reasons. Calvin did not want his belief to be restricted to just one area and he did not want Geneva to become a refuge for fleeing Protestants. The city was to be the heart that pumped Calvinism to all of Europe. This spread was to be based on a new educational system, which was established in Geneva. Both primary and secondary schools were created and in 1559 the Academy was established which was to become the University of Geneva. Geneva was/is French speaking and Calvin spoke French.
It was expected that many French Huguenots (Calvinists in France were known as
Huguenots) would head for the university to train as missionaries. This was the main task of the university. In 1559 it had 162 students. In 1564, it had over 1500 students. Most of these were foreign. Calvin had some luck with his teaching faculty as there had been a dispute over the level of pay at Lausanne University and many of the teaching staff there simply transferred to Geneva as the pay was better and the financial structure of the university was on a stronger footing. After their course at Geneva, the missionaries were given a French-speaking congregation in Switzerland where they could perfect their skills before moving on to France itself. The ease with which ministers could get into France was a bonus for Calvin. However, the size of the country was to be both help and a hindrance to Calvinists. In 1555 there was only one 'dressed church'. Seven years later, in 1562, there were 2150 such churches! This represents growth of extraordinary proportions. Eventually there were over two million Protestant church members out of a French population of twenty million. This multiplication came in spite of fierce persecution. For instance in 1572, 70,000 Protestants lost their lives. The church order used was Presbyterian. There were 29 national synods from about 1562 to 1685 when persecution forced most of the believers to leave France.
The real character of John Calvin is revealed in his letter writing, which was very extensive and pastoral in character. Besides personal letters he also wrote to the French churches as a whole. For instance in November 1559 he wrote: 'Persecutions are the real battles of Christians, to test the constancy and firmness of their faith; we should hold in high esteem the blood of the martyrs shed for a testimony to the truth.' From the example provided above we need above all to recapture the biblical idea that a missionary is a male preacher/pastor who engages in church planting. There are many ancillary services and many ancillary agencies but without the application in practice of preaching and pasturing in the work of church planting the prospect of Christianity in any unevangelised land will be bleak.
4.1.4 Calvin’s Theology of Missions
Calvin did write a systematic theology of missions. However, his Institutes, commentaries, and letters contain enough references of his theology of missions and his missionary spirit to help us reconstructing it from the statements made by his writings.
1. The reign of Jesus Christ.  Regarding Psalm 22:28 Calvin writes, “This passage, I have no doubt, agrees with many other prophecies which represent the throne of God as erected, on which Christ may sit to superintend and govern the world.” When he writes about the basis for world missions, the present reign of God through Christ is going to be accepted throughout all of his writings.
2. The new kingdom breaks down the distinction between Jew and Gentiles. Calvin frequently uses Ephesians 2:14 to insist that the partition-wall between Jew and Gentile has been broken down and the gospel has been promulgated, so that “we [both Jew and Gentile] have been gathered together into the body of the Church, and Christ’s power is put forth to uphold and defend us.” Since Christ’s rule extends over not only Jews, but over the whole world, Gentiles are called along with Jews into His Kingdom. It is the inclusion of Gentiles into the commonwealth of Israel that allows the gospel of the Jewish Messiah to be proclaimed to Gentiles throughout the world.
3. Christ rules over the earth from heaven to bring the earth under his full control. This happens in two ways. First, the reprobate who refuse to submit to Christ’s rule will “assail” the kingdom of Christ “from time to time until the end of the world,” at which time they will be laid prostrate at His feet. Second, the elect are “brought to yield a willing obedience to Him,” being subdued and humbled by Him. After the last day these will be made “partakers with Him in glory.” By these two methods the kingdom will be extended throughout the world. At no time can the progress of this kingdom be hindered. Commenting on Isaiah 2:2, Calvin writes that there will be “uninterrupted progress” in the spread of His kingdom “until he appears a second time for our salvation.” The kingdom of Christ, the “invincible Kingdom,” will be “vastly extended” because God makes “his scepter stretch far and wide.” Throughout the Church age, according to Calvin, Christ’s kingdom is being extended throughout the world.
4.The proclamation of the gospel is the Christian church’s responsibility. The means by which Christ’s kingdom is spread on earth is through the preaching of the gospel to the nations. Calvin writes, “There is no other way of raising up the church of God than by the light of the word, in which God himself, by his own voice, points out the way of salvation. Until the truth shines, men cannot be united together, so as to form a true church.” Calvin insisted that Christians bear the responsibility to spread the gospel. He writes, “for it is our duty to proclaim the goodness of God to every nation… the work is such as ought not to be concealed in a corner, but to be everywhere proclaimed.”While God could have used other means, He chose to “employ the agency of men” through the preaching of the gospel.
5. Christian Missiology is Trinitarian and God centered. Calvin’s theology of missions is thus God-centered and Christ-centered, focusing on the glory of God in Christ as well as the duty of man. All of life was to be lived for the glory of God. While the Catholic Church used meritorious works and asceticism as tools of motivation for missions, Protestants would not use this type of motivation. For Calvin, the motivating factor for world missions was the glory of God. When the gospel is proclaimed and accepted among the nations, God is worshipped and glorified.
Accordingly Calvin did not only push mission efforts and the spread of the Good News by mere preaching, he changed Geneva into a training center to provide Europe with evangelists, pastors, Christian musicians, Bibles and missionaries (Poland, Hongrie, Germany, Scotland, England, The Netherlands and even Brazil.
4.2. Wesley’s Missiology – An Experimental & Historical Evaluation
1.Learning from several Mission Leadership styles
What is clear from this discussion is that at the time of his departure for Georgia as a missionary, John had a fully developed missiology. Given John Wesley’s upbringing in a home where both his mother and his father had interest in missions, this is not surprising. Yet his views were highly theoretical, romantic and idealistic. He had read the materials of the SPG, the testimonies of the colonists, and the Danish mission work in India—all of which had a strong dose of reality—yet he believed his experience would be different. Wingeier-Rayo states:
He was somehow going to get out of the designated religious responsibilities in the colony and evangelize the Native Americans. He was somehow going to overcome the racist and ethnocentric attitudes of the colonists to build relationships with the Native Americans and the African slaves. He also believed that he would overcome the temptation of the Roman Catholics to use coercion to impose his faith on non- Christians. He believed that by mere education and persuasion that people would accept Christianity in spite of the negative treatment by the European colonists.
We can observe for sure is that John Wesley’s idealistic missiology set him up for a big fall. John’s overall experience in Georgia was a disaster at a personal, professional and spiritual level. The confluence of John Wesley’s lack of preparation for a romantic relationship, his naïve understanding of foreign missions, and his encounter with Moravian faith of assurance, caused a cataclysmic confrontation between idealism and reality. Personally he failed in his courtship of Sophey Hopkey, professionally he resigned of his post as Minister of Savannah and fled Savannah prematurely. Spiritually, Wesley failed in his original quest of evangelizing the Native Americans and lost his faith. He recorded in his diary:
“It is now two years and almost four months since I left my native country in order to teach the Georgian Indians the nature of Christianity. But what have I learned myself in the meantime? Why (what I the least of all suspected), that I who went to America to convert others, was never myself converted to God. ‘I am not mad’, though I thus speak, but ‘I speak the words of truth and soberness’; if haply some of those who still dream may awake, and see that as I am, so are they.”
For a while longer, Wesley transferred his idealism to the Moravians believing that they are the closest example to young Christianity. Wesley’s visit to Herrnhut after his first experience in mission allowed him to see the Moravians first hand in their setting. On one hand he was very impressed with their organization and spiritual disciplines and call them the closest manifestation to primitive Christianity that he was witnessed. On the other hand, Wesley’s trip to Herrnhut was a confrontation between his idealized image of the Moravians and the reality of Zinzendorf’s authoritarian leadership style.
Once back in London, Wesley and Peter Böhler began the United Society together at Fetter Lane on May 1, 1738 with many Moravian practices established in its “rules.” This society functioned well for a while, but after Böhler’s departure for the New World and during Wesley’s frequent preaching trips, a new Moravian leader arrived from Herrenhut with the doctrine of stillness. Wesley’s disagreement with antinomianism and Moravian understanding of faith, along with his questions about Zinzendorf’s hierarchical leadership style led to their break. Therefore Wesley started his own society at the Foundry and appropriated only the aspects of Moravianism that he saw fit.
4.2.2 Wesley reflects four Models for Mission Service of the 18th Century
This was not Wesley’s first introduction to foreign missions. There were four main missionary models of which Wesley was aware before he met the Moravians: the English society model, the Puritans immigration model, the Danish Pietist model from Halle and the Roman Catholic model, sponsored by the Spanish crown. As a boy Wesley was aware of his father Samuel’s participation in the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge (SPCK) which was founded in 1698 to "counteract the growth of vice and immorality" through the publication of Christian literature.
Concerned that the SPCK was not providing enough support for Thomas Bray and other religious efforts in North America, the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel (SPG) in Foreign Parts founded in 1701 to "ensure that sufficient maintenance [sic] be provided for an orthodox clergy to live amongst the colonists and that such other provision be made as may be necessary for the propagation of the gospel in those parts..." The original work of the SPG was ruled by the English Crown to provide religious services to the colonists. While Wesley would have been keenly aware of this English model, he found their mission philosophy heavily centered on the love and wisdom of the missionary as pastor and teacher. This model takes the responsibility off the ordinary laymen to participate in missions and appoints a designated religious leader to the colonists.
A second 18th century mission model was that of the Puritan Richard Sibbs and the early Puritan migrants who populated New England.  Wesley’s rejection of Puritan missiology demonstrated how he was a product of the modern age and broke from a literal interpretation of Scripture. Rather than an undisputed authority standing above all doctrines, Wesley saw Scripture from a more Anglican perspective of “containing all things necessary for salvation.” Also, Wesley’s missiology was more pragmatic and dialectical, seeking to recreate primitive Christianity. The Danish Halle mission efforts became accessible in England following the publication of Bartholomeaus Ziegenbalg’s Propagation of the Gospel in the East in 1711. John recorded in his Savannah diary several instances of reading about the Danish missionaries—perhaps as provided by the Moravians. John would continue to read the continued reports of Danish missionary efforts as the Propagation of the Gospel in the Easts as sequels were published.
Wesley was also aware of a fourth mission model as promoted by the Spanish crown. The Roman Catholic model was organized into religious orders, namely the Dominicans, Jesuits and Franciscan. Although Wesley enjoyed a positive view of some Spanish mystics who enjoyed a deep religious vocation and commitment to holiness, his view of the Spanish mission work was colored by his English colonial bias.  Wesley rejected the Catholic model of coercion and the English model as being too missionary-centered, however he embraced the Danish method as being spirit-led. Even before meeting the Moravians, Wesley had a working missiology and an open disposition toward the German pietism. In spite of their influence on his personal, professional and spiritual life, the Moravians’ foreign missions program did not have a lasting effect on Wesley.
4.2.5 John Wesley’s Missiology matures
According to Hal Knight a long time after the break up some of Wesley’s early observations at the Moravian missiology took root because he writes of him: Wesley believed God had raised the “people called Methodists” “to reform the nation, particularly the church, and to spread scriptural holiness over the land.”
Also Wesley theology of mission or missiology was a theology of salvation: Salvation begins with what is usually termed (and very properly) preventing grace; including the first wish to please God, the first dawn of light concerning, his will, and the first slight transient conviction of having sinned against him. All these imply some tendency toward life; some degree of salvation; the beginning of a deliverance from a blind, unfeeling heart, quite insensible of God and the things of God. Salvation is carried on by convincing grace, usually in Scripture termed repentance; which brings a larger measure of self-knowledge, and a farther deliverance from the heart of stone. Afterwards we experience the Proper Christian salvation: whereby, “through grace,” we “are saved by faith;” consisting of those two grand branches, justification and sanctification. By justification we are saved from the guilt of sin, and restored to the favor of God, by sanctification we are saved from the power and root of sin, and restored to the image of God.
All experience, as well as Scripture, show this salvation to be both instantaneous and gradual. It begins the moment we are justified, in the holy, humble, gentle, patient love of God and man. It gradually increases from that moment, as “a grain of mustard seed, which, at first, is the least of all seeds,” but afterwards puts forth large branches, and becomes a great tree; till, in another instant, the heart is cleansed from all sin, and filled with pure love to God and man. But even that love increases more and more, till we “grow up in all things into Him that is our head;” till we attain “the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ.
This reflection on a Wesleyan theology of mission assumes several basic things: That God calls the church into mission; that the church is essentially missionary, or mission focused; that the gospel of Jesus Christ is powerful to reach across cultural barriers and to draw people to himself despite human sinfulness.
It assumes also that any sound theology of mission, including any purportedly Wesleyan one, must be thoroughly biblical; that biblical authority takes precedence over the authority of Wesley or any church tradition.
Wesley’s missionary focus, of course, was primarily Great Britain and the American colonies, although he himself in that account had failed to do a good job. He believed in establishing a vital base and then moving out gradually from that base, and thus extended the Methodist witness throughout England and into Scotland, Ireland, and America.  The institutions and practices of the movement were designed to enable the Methodists to participate in God’s mission in the world. While Wesley had an admitted bias toward Anglican structures, he insisted that polity exists to serve mission.
4.2.6 Wesley’s two distinctives in his missiology
The two points of distinctiveness I would highlight in Wesley’s theology are, first, his broad, conjunctive approach (“both/and” rather than “either/or,” but with no compromise on issues of truth and error); and his integration of multiple sources of truth (but with no compromise on biblical authority).
1. Wesley’s sources for his theology. Unlike most of his theological contemporaries and forebears, Wesley drew from other traditions besides Reformed Protestantism. Most importantly for the whole cast of his theology, he reached back prior to Augustine and drew from the early sources of Eastern Orthodoxy. Central here is Wesley’s view of grace, of human nature, and of the nature and scope of salvation. 
2. The Wesleyan Pentalateral. It is clear that for Wesley, God’s creation was a source of revelation, truth, and insight. Wesley integrated all these elements into his theology. The construct probably is best viewed as a sphere or circle, or a structure like that of the atom, with Scripture at the center and creation, reason, tradition, and experience orbiting around this center—all “energized” and made dynamic by the Holy Spirit.
4.2.7 John Wesley’s Arminanism and its influence on his missiology
The Arminian background of John Wesley convictions and its imbedding in Reformed Theology . The Arminian theology usually falls into one of two groups — the Classical Arminianism, drawn from the teaching of Jacobus Arminius — and Wesleyan Arminian, drawing primarily from Wesley. Both groups overlap substantially. Arminianism (also called Reformed Arminian tradition, the Reformed Arminian faith, or Reformed Arminian theology) is a school of soteriological thought within Protestant Christianity based on the theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560–1609) and his historic followers, the Remonstrant’s. The doctrine's acceptance stretches through much of Christianity from the early arguments between Athanasius and Origen, to Augustine of Hippo's defense of "original sin." Dutch Arminianism as it developed was originally articulated in the Remonstrance (1610), a theological statement signed by 45 ministers and submitted to the Dutch states general. The Synod of Dort (1618–19) was called by the states general to pass upon the Remonstrance. The five points of the Remonstrance asserted that:
• election (condemnation on the day of judgment) depends on rational faith or its absence.
• the Atonement, while qualitatively adequate for all men, is only effective the believer
• without help by the Holy Spirit, no person is able to respond to God’s will;
• man can resist to the grace of God
• believers are able to resist sin but are not beyond the possibility of falling from grace.
The crux of Remonstrant Arminianism lays in the assertion that human dignity requires an unimpaired freedom of the will. This view is in conflict with Lutheranism and origin Calvinism. Since the 16th century, Christians of many denominations like the American Methodists, Congregationalists, Universalists and Unitarians including the Baptists were influenced by Arminian views. So were the Methodists, the Congregationalists of the early New England colonies in the 17th and 18th centuries, as well as the Universalists and Unitarians in the 18th and 19th centuries. The origin of the so called classical Arminianism affirms the original beliefs of Jacobus Arminius himself, but the term can also be understood as an umbrella for a larger grouping of ideas including those of Hugo Grotius, John Wesley and others. There are two primary perspectives on how the system is applied in detail: Classical Arminianism, which sees Arminius as its figurehead, and Wesleyan Arminianism, which sees John Wesley as its figurehead. Wesleyan Arminianism is sometimes synonymous with Methodism. In addition, Arminianism is often misrepresented by some of its critics to include Semipelagianism or even Pelagianism, though proponents of both primary perspectives vehemently deny these claims. Within the broad scope of the history of Christian theology, Arminianism is closely related to Calvinism (or Reformed theology), and the two systems share both history and many doctrines. Nonetheless, they are often viewed as rivals within evangelicalism because of their disagreement over details of the doctrines of divine predestination and salvation.
4.2.9 Wesleyanist Arminism and international missions
Ever since Arminius and his followers revolted against Calvinism in the early 17th century, Protestant soteriology has been largely divided between Calvinism and Arminianism. The extreme of Calvinism is hyper-Calvinism, which insists that signs of election must be sought before evangelization of the unregenerate takes place and that the eternally damned have no obligation to repent and believe, and on the extreme of Arminianism is Pelagianism, which rejects the doctrine of original sin on grounds of moral accountability; but the overwhelming majority of Protestant, evangelical pastors and theologians hold to one of these two systems or somewhere in between.
In spite of his separation from the Moravians, Wesley would carry with him many ecclesiological contributions that he would apply to the now-fully Methodist movement. Between 1735 when he departed for Georgia and 1740 when the Fetter Lane Society split, Wesley participated in and appropriated Moravian practices such as bands, hymns, heart-felt religion, faith of assurance, the love-feast, the Watch-night service, extemporary prayer and preaching, lay preaching, the conference and education are some of these. The Aldersgate experience was largely a result of his conversations with the Moravians, especially Peter Böhler. While Wesley used bands, hymns and extemporaneous preaching as part of a national mission effort to “spread Scriptural holiness throughout the land,” he did not learn from the Moravian vision of overseas mission. He did not take a proactive attitude toward sending missionaries to foreign lands. While his former friend George Whitefield made seven trips to the American colonies and established the Savannah orphanage and several societies, Wesley never returned nor did he send others until he received a request for missionaries in North America and sent Joseph Pilmore and Richard Boardman in 1769.  When Wesley returned to England after a painful experience in Georgia and found a “niche” in the midst of an ongoing revival in his home country.
It is with good reason that Thomas Coke, not John Wesley is deemed “the father of Methodist foreign missions.” It seems he was the man to apply some the emerging Wesleyan teaching into a missionary context. Coke repeatedly visited the United States during the next twenty-five years and played a significant part in shaping the American Methodist Mission efforts. Arguably most significant contribution was however in the field of overseas missions. 
4.3 Calvin and Wesley’s mission-impacting convictions in overview:
Both Calvin and Wesley are representative of their times termed their central theological convictions differently.
Nature of election – Arminians hold that election to eternal salvation has the condition of faith attached. The Calvinist doctrine of unconditional election states that salvation cannot be earned or achieved and is therefore not conditional upon any human effort, so faith is not a condition of salvation but the divinely apportioned means to it. In other words, Arminians believe that they owe their election to their faith, whereas Calvinists believe that they owe their faith to their election.
Nature of grace – Arminians believe that, through grace, God restores free will concerning salvation to all humanity, and each individual, therefore, is able either to accept the Gospel call through faith or resist it through unbelief. Calvinists hold that God's grace to enable salvation is given only to the elect and irresistibly leads to salvation.
John Calvin’s and John Wesley teaching in view of the Great Commission:
John Calvins Missiology
John Wesley- Missiology
Important Bibleverse for missiological formation
Zeph.3: 2 “saved to save others”
v. 19: Jesus says: Therefore go and make disciples…
Men elected, needs to know the law, (the bible) turn to God, receive forgiveness, enter in a covenant relationship and enjoy God
Men will in prevenient grace preserved for a free will relationship with the Holy Father and instructor (pedagogue) on the road of holiness.
In the name of the father, the son and of the Holy Spirit,,,
The sovereign Trinitarian Creator God who forgives, seeks a relationship and teaches us the right ways.
The trinitarian loving God, who saves and restores.
20: “Teach them what I have commanded you”
Way of Salvation
Jesus. Eph.2,6.7, electing grace, through conversion, men invited to enter eternal relationship (predestination) with creator and his church.
Jesus. Men invited to enter eternal relationship, new heart, new life. Supported by “prevenient grace” (extra-biblical teaching).
Means of grace
The gospel of Jesus, explained with a Covenant Theology, signs: Baptism, Lord’s Supper, perseverance of the saints
The gospel of Jesus explained with a Theology of Redemption “Holy Methodology” (Methodism)
“And surely I am with you always , to the very end of the age”
Christ reigns over the earth and will come back again. Atonement for the elected
Christ reignsover the earth and will come back again, Atonement universal, not only for elected.
Extent of the atonement – Arminians, along with four-point Calvinists or Amyraldians, hold to a universal drawing and universal extend of atonement instead of the Calvinist doctrine that the drawing and atonement is limited in extent to the elect only, which many Calvinists prefer to call 'particular redemption'. Both sides (with the exception of hyper-Calvinists) believe the invitation of the gospel is universal and "must be presented to everyone [they] can reach without any distinction."
Perseverance in faith – Arminians believe that future salvation and eternal life is secured in Christ and protected from all external forces but is conditional on remaining in Christ and can be lost through apostasy. Traditional Calvinists believe in the doctrine of the perseverance of the saints, which says that because God chose some unto salvation and actually paid for their particular sins, he keeps them from apostasy and that those who do apostatize were never truly regenerated (that is, born again) or saved. Non-traditional Calvinists and other evangelicals advocate the similar but different doctrine of eternal security that teaches if a person was once saved, his or her salvation can never be in jeopardy, even if the person completely apostatizes.
Strict versus Perfect (Final Conclusion)
Calvin missiology was based on exegetical preword, the immigration mission concept in Geneva an excellent preparation even for overseas missionary work in Brazil in 1555, which was much the result of the weaking Spanish control on the sea. Although regrettably in the end this attempt with well trained and experienced people to do missionary overseas failed, a beginning was made. The hunderts of sent out evangelists all over Europe to plant churches or assist small groups of believers to learn about the word of God and the extensive correspondence and distribution of bibles in French, English, the Alemannian and the Luther New German Version changed Europe within a few years forever and deepened the Reformed Churches confidence for its mission, especially overseas where there was less control. The system worked and was strict in its application of “sola scriptura”.
Wesley’s later contribution answered other questions. In terms of mission and a missiological teaching framework out of his literature not much more can be added. He chose to learn from four forms of mission work and decided not to go into mission again. His mission was “to save” as he was saved out of the burning house with five years. He did this with great zeal. While Wesley used bands, hymns and extemporaneous preaching as part of a national mission effort to “spread Scriptural holiness throughout the land,” a Moravian looking at his life laments: “ He did not take a proactive attitude toward sending missionaries to foreign lands. Wesley never returned nor did he send others until he received a request for missionaries in North America and sent Joseph Pilmore and Richard Boardman in 1769.” Beside from preaching in Ireland and Wales, Wesley never left England again. Wesley returned to England after a painful experience in Georgia. He found a “niche” in the midst of an ongoing revival in his home country. His efforts were consumed to develop a the inner men (Methodism) to successfully perfect a holy life and called the Methodist Church into life, which at a later date did think more about mission beyond its national borders. – His teachings, known as Wesleyanism, provided the seeds for both the modern Methodist movement, the Holiness movement, Pentecostalism, the Charismatic Movement, and Neo-charismatic churches, which encompass numerous denominations across the world. The Reformed or Calvinistic churches have made valuable contributions to mission and therefore the expansion of Christendom throughout the world. At least the following countries need special mention: The Netherlands, Switzerland, Scotland, USA, South Africa, Ghana and Korea. It is therefore no surprise that Reformed theologians2 have contributed and in fact are still making important contributions to many of the missiological themes mentioned. The missiological contributions of people such as K. Barth, E. Brunner (Switzerland), R. Niebuhr (USA), J.H. Bavinck, H. Kraemer, A. van Ruler, J. Jongeneel (the Netherlands), D. Bosch (South Africa) and K. Bediako (Ghana) have stimulated missiology and mission worldwide.
1. Applied Calvinist Missiology in France and Missionary Training (1553)
Unlike present day France, which is almost entirely secular in outlook, the France of the 16th century was religious but dominated by the priesthood of the Roman Catholic Church. Persecution by the priests against evangelicals was fierce. It could cost your life to actively propagate the evangelical faith. However within the Roman Church a very considerable Bible movement had taken place through the secret reading of books by Luther as well as through the teaching of a well-known Catholic, Lefèvre d'Etaples. A great spiritual harvest was there to be reaped. French aristocratic women also promoted the growth of Calvinism. As the Renaissance moved north, many young French women were educated in the new humanism and began to question the traditional Catholic dogma. Margaret of Angouleme, Queen of Navarre (1492-1549) and sister of the French king, often petitioned her brother on behalf of Protestants accused of heresy and kept reformers at her court, where Calvin was sheltered at one time. Her daughter, Jeanne d'Albert (1528-1572), who became queen in 1549, established Calvinism in Navarre, having converted her second husband, the French aristocrat, Antoine de Bourbon. Because Calvinism had enlisted many French dissident nobles who intended to resist royal power, the Bourbon leader hoped to gain their support and use it later to further his family's claim to the French throne. Jeanne, however, was dedicated to Calvinist principles, raising money and enlisting recruits between her contemporizes. She was a powerful member of the aristocratic Huguenot clique, headed by Admiral de Coligny and the Bourbon Prince, Louis of Conde.
From 1555 to 1562 we know for sure that 88 preachers were sent from Geneva into France. Of these, nine laid down their lives as martyrs. There may have been more than 88. Historical research is hampered by the fact that everything in that period was done in a secretive way for security reasons. Also we must account for many short term missions into France. Those who were ordained and sent out as church planters were exceptionally gifted men. Some of them were from aristocratic families and most were from a well-educated upper middle class background in France. Very few were from artisan origin and none from a peasant background. With the exception of Pierre Viret who was Swiss, (he became the pastor of the largest church of 8,000 communicants at Nîmes), these church planting missionaries originated from almost every province of France. This fact helps explain how it was that almost all regions of France were permeated with the gospel.
Of these missionaries those who were not already accredited pastors were obliged to conform to rigorous standards set up by Calvin. The moral life of the candidate, his theological integrity and his preaching ability were subject to careful examination. With regard to moral discipline a system was established by which the pastors were responsible to each other. There was an exacting code listing offences that were not to be tolerated in a minister. Offences in money, dishonesty or sexual misconduct meant instant dismissal. All Calvin's students had to be fully proficient in Latin, Hebrew and Greek, in order to be thoroughly proficient in line-by-line exegesis of the Scriptures.
They were required to be trained in Church History and Systematic Theology. Character training was paramount. These pastors had to face the reality of martyrdom. Only when Calvin judged a man to possess the necessary fiber and stamina would he be sent into France to preach and plant churches. Each church began by a group gathering in a home, and then out of that a fully disciplined church would be constituted. Such was termed 'a dressed church'.
The first Huguenot (Calvinist) ministers arrived in France in 1553. By 1563, there were nearly 90 Huguenots in France and the speed of its spread surprised even Calvin. Henry II of France was a strong catholic and he had established a body called the Chambre Ardente in
1547 to monitor, and hunt out as ‘heresy’ in France. It was not a success and was disbanded in 1550. Whereas his father (Francis I) had used Protestantism to help advance his power against the Parliament de Paris, Henry had no wish to have any association with Protestants whatsoever. In 1555 the first Huguenot congregation to have a permanent minister was established in Paris. By 1558, this congregation was worshipping in the open guarded by armed sympathizers. In 1559, the first synod (national council) was held in Paris. There were 72 local congregations were represented by the elders from each congregation. In some regions of France traveling ministers had to be used but this was never a major problem as the organization of the church was so tight. Many Huguenot communities were near each other so communication was never really a problem. Educated merchants were drawn to Calvinism. This occurred probably as a result of the impact of the Renaissance and as a reaction to the rigidity of the Catholic Church. The strict organization of the Huguenots made any attempt by the authorities to crush them very difficult. Added to this was the simple fact that La Rochelle was a long way from Paris. By 1561, there were 2150 Huguenot churches in France
and Calvinists were estimated to be about 10% of the population - about 1 million people. It has to be remembered that the first Calvinist ministers only got to France in 1553. Calvinism within France became a large minority religion. Since this all happened in the French-speaking world, much of it did never surface in the historical publications of other languages.
2. Applying Calvinist Missiology on Italy’s Waldenisan Background (1536)
Calvinism made gains elsewhere but did not win political power. In Italy, the Duchess of Ferrara copied the Navarre church service for her private chapel and harbored Calvinist refugees; and Zofia Olesnicka, wife of a Polish noble, endowed a local Calvinist church. A comparing map of places with Waldensian churches and the places where Calvinism quickly took root shows an impressive relationship between the promotional work was done by this congregational oriented non-Presbyterian group, which indeed was Calvin’s theological backbone in much of France and on continental Europe.
3. Applied Calvinist Missiology in Germany (1562)
Lutheranism had already taken root as had Anabaptism therefore Calvinism was first seen as another protest religion. There was also a lot of persecution in general against Protestants. In 1524, Charles V introduced his own Inquisition to the region and in 1529 and 1531 new edicts were introduced ordering the death penalty to anyone who was found guilty of being a Lutheran or who would shelter them or help spread Lutherans beliefs. In 1550 Charles V removed the authority of city councils to try heretics. It was his belief that city magistrates were too lenient and that the provincial courts which took over this duty would have far greater control than the city magistrates. These measures did check the spread of Protestantism but of all three Calvinism was the most successful and the best equipped to survive. Its system of non-religious governments by elders allowed it to operate regardless of the authorities. The Anabaptists were too reliant on the role of the individual as opposed to strength in numbers and organization while the Lutherans were poorly organized and more open to attack from the authorities. Calvinism developed into a popular movement in NW Rhineland and Westphalia - both neighbors of the Netherlands. These were the only areas to convert. In 1562, Frederick III modeled churches in his territory on the Calvinist model, which was contrary to the 1555 Religious Settlement of Augsburg, which stated that churches could only be Catholic or Lutheran. Heidelberg became a leading intellectual centre but the spread elsewhere was very limited due to Lutheranism and the input of Calvinism into Germany served to disunite the Protestant movement and help the Catholic Church in the Counter-Reformation. John Sigismund of Brandenburg was to convert at a later date and his state followed.
5.Applied Calvinistic Missiology in Poland (1550)
The western area of Poland was German speaking which had helped Luther. However, Poland had a history of nationalism and a desire to be independent and this did not help Luther who had not spent time organizing his church. Calvinism first reached Poland in 1550 and the nobles latched on to the idea of using the civilian population - and giving them some power in their religious rights - as a lever to expand their own power. Two leading nobles (Prince Radziwill the Black and John a Lasco) actively helped the spread of Calvinism as did the two kings (Stephen II and Stephen Bathory). Regardless of this, Calvinism did not spread far. Why? Most of its population was Catholic, but Poland's rulers had long practiced religious toleration: When the Protestant Reformation began in the 16th century, a large portion of the upper classes of Poland got interested (esp. Calvinism) By 1550's, a majority of the Polish Parliament (the Seym) were Protestants. Even radical Protestants - like the Anabaptists and Mennonites were allowed into Poland. The Catholic bishops of Poland responded to this influx of Protestants with toleration. Some shared their churches with Lutherans. Some did not care about whatever religion some wanted as long as they paid their church taxes: The bishop of Krakow - "I don't care if you worship a goat, as long as you keep paying your tithes". In one famous case, a man (an Arian) was brought before the Polish Parliament for stamping on the Eucharist during a Catholic procession. The Parliament decided that if God was offended, God should be the one to punish him. In 1539 – the king declared freedom of the press at main university of Poland (Jagiellon) – at a time when only the Swiss Confederation had allowed freedom of the press. This kingdom in the 16th century allowed freedom of thought and religion, and even let a large portion of its population become Protestant. And yet, by the late 17th century, due to an organized effort by smart Jesuits, who by offering education for free gained control over the national education system most people of Poland were Catholic again. Some believe another problem was the language.
Most Poles did not speak German and therefore the language remained a major stumbling block as most Calvinist preachers did not speak Polish and could not communicate with the population. Another problem was that numerous Protestant religions already existed in Poland (Bohemian Brethren, Anabaptists, Unitarians etc.) and those who might be won away from the Catholic Church had already been so. In 1573 in the Confederation of Warsaw, both Catholics and Protestants agreed to make religious toleration part of the constitution to be sworn by each succeeding king. But the division among the Protestants meant that the Catholic Church dominated the country and her nickname at this time was the "Spain of the north".
5. Applied Calvinist Missiology on Hungarian Backgroun(1550)
By the middle of the 16th century there was a considerable Protestant movement in Hungary,
mainly in the eastern part of the country where it enjoyed the protection of the princes of Transylvania. The major part of the movement came under Calvinistic influence and the church became Presbyterian in its polity. In the 17th century the movement was oppressed through the combined efforts of the Habsburg dynasty and the Roman Catholic hierarchy. The work of the Counter-Reformation culminated in 1673. Catholicism was ruthlessly re-imposed all over the country. Pastors were forced to renounce their faith, many were expelled, and some sold as galley slaves. It was only the Diet of 1790-91, which restored civil rights to Protestants. The agreement of 1867 set the pattern of church-state relations till the end of the Second World War.
6. Applied Calvinist Missiology in the Netherlands (1550)
The Netherlands: Calvin made important gains in this state. Ministers first arrived here in the
1550’s aided by Huguenot preachers who were fleeing from France. Most Calvinists were from Antwerp, Ghent and regions near Germany. Once the theologians removed the exegetical obstacle, people such as Petrus Plancius (1552–1622) pleaded for missionary work abroad. They made slow progress at first. The question concerning mobility was an obvious focus of attention. The Reformed Church (Hervormde Kerk) in the Netherlands saw an easy solution to this problem. By 1560, Calvinism had not spread far because the authorities were very active against it. In total, Protestantism accounted for 5% of the whole population in the Netherlands of which the Calvinists were just a small part. No noble men appeared to be interested as they were too concerned with their political power and economic progress. They knew that the Catholic Church was corrupt, but they found the Calvinists far too authoritarian. Because the Dutch became a leading sea-faring nation during the 17th century, the church entered into a cooperative agreement with the Dutch East India Company (Verenigde Oos-Indiese Kompanjie or VOC). The company provided the ships while the Church provided the missionaries. The decision to combine trade with mission turned the Dutch into leaders in mission and missiology. Gisbertus Voetius, the founder of the University of Utrecht, became the first Reformed 'missiologist' of note. Missiological questions became so important during his lifetime that even the National Synod of Dordrecht (1618/19) – famous for the doctrine on predestination, as recorded in the Canons of Dordt, with the philosopher René Descartes as an elder in its midst, discussed the missiological question of whether Muslim children living with Dutch people in Indonesia could be baptized. In 1622 the Dutch erected their first mission seminary, in Leiden, under Antonius Walaeus (1753–1639). The great jurist of Leiden, Hugo de Groot/Hugo Grotius (1583–1645) also made a huge contribution to missiology. In that year, he published 'Proof of the true religion' (Bewijs van de waren godsdienst). This book was used to write pamphlets for discussions with the Muslims. In spite of the missionary 'success' of this century, we should acknowledge the following: 'The true religion travelled with the trading industry' (De 'ware godsdienst' reist met die 'warengodsdienst' mee –
7. Applied mission efforts in Calvin’s Overseas Mission in Brazil (1556)
Protestants were much hindered in their attempt to bring the gospel overseas. Prior to 1558 (when the Spanish Armada was defeated) the Spanish and the Portuguese controlled the sea-lanes. The Pope had divided the New World between them. The French defied the Pope in this matter and sent out ships to the New World by themselves. Since these countries were Catholic, they did not allow Protestant missionaries to sail overseas with the gospel. Therefore, it was quite a surprise that Calvin was able to send missionaries to Brazil. Nicolas Durand, was a fellow student with John Calvin in Paris. However, Villegagnon joined the military and became Knight of Malta. He was later appointed Vice-admiral of Britanny. After a quarrel with a governor, he decided to start a colonial expedition in Brazil. Villegagnon sought the aid of the Coligny the Grand Admiral of France, who was a supporter and protector of the Reformed Church. Villegagnon told him that he desired to start a colony that would offer protection for Protestants being persecuted in France. This convinced Coligny and Coligny in turn convinced Henry II to find ships for an expedition.
On November 10, 1555, Villegagnon set sail and after four months, they landed in Rio de Janeiro. After his arrival in Brazil, he sent word back to Coligny asking for reinforcements and for ministers to evangelize the Tupinamba Indians. Coligny was all too happy to oblige his request. He wrote Calvin about the matter, and according to Baez-Camargo, Calvin “saw a wonderful door opening here for the extension of the Geneva Church, and so he took steps at once to organize a missionary force.” Two pastors together with eleven laymen volunteered for the mission. They left Geneva in September 1556 and landed in Fort Coligny (in Rio de Janeiro) in March 1557.
The Genevan missionaries were received with much joy. Pierre Richier and Guillaume Chartier, the two pastors, began to organize the church in Fort Coligny. On March 21, 1557, they held their first communion service. Villegagnon appeared to be a model Protestant leader. However, this soon changed. He began to interfere with the pastors in matters of church discipline and even on “matters of faith.” Villegagnon began to demand that baptism and the Lord’s Supper be administered in a similar fashion to Catholic teachings. In order to assure this would be in agreement with the sending Genevan church both sides agreed to send Chartier back to Geneva to discuss the matter and Villegagnon said he would abide by what Calvin said on the matter. As soon as Chartier left, Villegagnon began to call Calvin a heretic. He began to punish the Genevan missionaries by over working them in the construction of the fort and not giving them adequate food. At this point, pastor Richier confronted Villegagnon face to face and told him that the Geneva missionaries would return to Geneva on the next ship.
In January 1558, the missionaries set sail to return home. Yet the ship began to leak, so five of the Geneva men decided to return to the mission. Villegagnon initially welcomed them back, but then grew suspicious. He demanded a statement of faith from the Geneva Calvinists. As soon as he received the statement, he choose three out of the five men to be strangled and thrown into the ocean (the other two were spared because Villegagnon was in need of a tailor and a cutler). Villegagnon later returned to France for reinforcements, and in 1560, the Portuguese attacked and destroyed the fort, which was the end of the French colony.
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 These aspects would, according to my understanding, form the elements of a definition on 'mission'. Amazingly, the Roman Catholic Missiology of the 20th century does not differ a great deal from this summary of Reformed missiology. According to Vatican II (1960–1964), as formulated in the decree Ad Gentes, the following aspects should receive the attention of the missiologists and missionaries: F. Oborji, Concepts of mission: The evolution of contemporary missiology (New York: Orbis, 2006), 3.
 John Calvin’s father worked in the notary of the cathedral and as registrar of the ecclesiastical court.
 The holder of a Lizenziat; (lat. licentiatus, [lic.] ) is the owner of a license for academic teaching. As an academic degree it followed the Bakkalaureat and was required for Master- degree or doctoral studies. Sometimes this degree was used as equivalent for both. Pending on the époque and period this academic degree was used in universities/ faculties. http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lizenziat, 10/10/2011.
 Hans-Dieter Betz, ed., B.A Gerrish, “Art. Calvin”, Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (=RGG, vol.2 (Tübingen: 1999).
 Although Calvin described his basic conversion in this way, it took him some time to process what he had discovered: “Offended by the novelty, I lent an unwilling ear, and at first, I confess, strenuously and passionately resisted; for (such is the firmness or effrontery with which it is natural to men to persist in the course which they have once undertaken) it was with the greatest difficulty I was induced to confess that I had all my life long been in ignorance and error.” Timothy George, “Glory unto God: John Calvin,” in Theology of the Reformers (Nashville: Broadman, 1988), 171.
 Kantzenbach, Friedrich Wilhelm: Die Reformation in Deutschland und Europa, Evangelische Enzyklopädie, vol. 9 (Gütersloh, 1965), 74, 75.
 In April 1534 Calvin goes back to his hometown, gives back his former earnings from the church and leaves for Nérac, to the court of Margarete of Navarra, where other heads of the reformation already are, like Gérard Roussel and humanist and Lutherfriend Jacques Lefèvre d’Étaples (alias „Faber Stapulensis“). He was the one who had translated the Latin Bible into French and had made his house a center of Reformation in Paris.
 Calvin himself mentions this important event of life in his writings only at two places: Once in his introduction to the psalms where he says: “First I was so stubbornly devoted in the superstition of papacy that it really was not easy to draw me out from this abyss. But through a sudden conversion God changed my heart, which for my age was already very hardened to obey him“ J. Calvin, Vorwort zum Psalmenkommentar (1557). OC vol 31, 22.
 Ganoczy, Alexander, von Walter Kieper (ed.) „Art. Calvin“ Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, vol. 2 (Freiburg 1994) 895.
 On October 18, 1534 in the king’s bedroom anti-catholic and critical comments against Luther are discovered. King Francois is furious and orders the persecution of the evangelicals. Calvin is fleeing again, first to Strasbourg and to Basle, where he uses the name Martianus Lucianus to rent an apartment.
 Kantzenbach, Friedrich Wilhelm: Die Reformation in Deutschland und Europa, Evangelische Enzyklopädie, Bd. 9 (Gütersloh, 1965), 77 , 78.
 Lortz, Joseph & Iserloh, Erwin: Kleine Reformationsgeschichte. Ursachen-Verlauf-Wirkung. (Freiburg, 1969), 185.
 Cottret, Bernard: Calvin. Eine Biographie ( Stuttgart 1998), 144.
 Erroll Hulse, „John Calvin and his Missionary Enterprise,“ http://www.reformed-theology.org
 The translation ,'I was terrified by Farel's words and made conscious of being a coward.' As used by Errol Hulse Hulch apparently is a wrong translation. Calvin was not afraid to be a coward, he felt Gods hand on him. J. Calvin, Preword to the Commentary of Psalms (1557). In: OC Bd. 31, 27.
 At this point we need to look at the background as this only will explain why Farel was so keen to engage Calvin's help but also to see these cities became Protestant. Farel had sought to reform the city but had been expelled. He then persuaded a friend by the name of Froment to begin teaching French in Geneva. This French language school attracted many prominent women students. Froment chose the New Testament as his textbook, which was used by the Holy Spirit to convict the women who then influenced their husbands. In due course the evangelical party in the city increased in number. Geneva had seven regions (parishes) and about 300 priests and nuns.
 Of 337 priests only 174 arrived and only 4 had any ability to defend their doctrine. The way in which these cities were won was by challenging the Roman Catholic priests to a public debate, which the city leaders were invited to attend.
 This incident proofs Calvin’s far back reaching thorough knowledge about the discussions of the early church fathers, even though he had “officially” never studied theology.
 Kantzenbach, Friedrich Wilhelm: Die Reformation in Deutschland und Europa, Evangelische Enzyklopädie, vol. 9 (Gütersloh, 1965), 79.
 Gerrish, B.A.: Art. Calvin. In: Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart (=RGG), hrsg. von Hans-Dieter Betz u.a., Bd.2, Tübingen 1999. Spalte 19.
 Wolfgang Fabricius Capito, original name Wolfgang Köpfel (1478-1541), Christian humanist and Roman Catholic priest who, breaking with his Roman faith, became a primary Reformer at Strasbourg. Educated at the German universities of Ingolstadt and Freiburg, Capito became a diocesan preacher (1512) in Bruchsal, where he met the future Reformers John Oecolampadius and Conrad Pellican. As appointed cathedral preacher at Basel, Switzerland, in 1515, he lectured at the university and met the celebrated humanist Desiderius Erasmus and the subsequent leader of the Swiss Reformation, Huldrych Zwingli. http://www.britannica.com/
 Dankbaar, Willem F.: Calvin. Sein Werk und sein Leben. 2. ed. (Neukirchen-Vlyun 1966), 60 -61.
 Out of the once small octavo of 1536, with its six chapters, meanwhile a fairly big book had grown.
 Dankbaar, Willem F.: Calvin. Sein Werk und sein Leben. 2. ed.( Neukirchen-Vlyun 1966), 60 -68.
 Dankbaar, Willem F.: Calvin. Sein Werk und sein Leben. 2. ed. ( Neukirchen-Vlyun 1966), 69- 71.
 J. Calvin, Brief an Viret vom Mai 1540. : OC vol.. 11, letter-No. 217.
 Dankbaar, Willem F.: Calvin. Sein Werk und sein Leben. 2. ed. (Neukirchen-Vlyun 1966), 80- 83.
 In winter 1558/59 Calvin drew up the final Latin version of the Institutes. In 1559 he founded an Academy in Geneva, where many future pastors from North and Central Europe were studying.
 Ganoczy, Alexander: Art. Calvin. In: Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, hrsg. von Walter Kieper, Bd. 2, Freiburg 1994, Spalte 897.
 Calvin often dealt with material from his commentaries in lectures to students and ministers. After 1557 these people made notes during these lectures that were published as the following commentaries: - Hosea (1557) - Minor Prophets (1559–1560) - Daniel (1561–1562) - Jeremiah and Lamentations (1563 & 1565) - Ezekiel 1 - 20:44 (1565
 Charles Wallace, (1997) Susanna Wesley : the complete writings, New York : Oxford University Press, 67.
 Wesley's problems came to a head when he refused Hopkey communion. She and her new husband, William Williamson, filed suit against Wesley.
 Williamson again tried to raise charges against Wesley to prevent him from leaving the colony, but he managed to escape back to England.
 Frederick A. Dreyer, The Genesis of Methodism. Lehigh University Press, (1999), 27.
 Utraquist, also called Calixtin, or Calixtine, any of the spiritual descendants of Jan Hus who believed that the laity, like the clergy, should receive the Eucharist under the forms of both bread and wine (Latin utraque, “each of two”; calix, “chalice”). Unlike the militant Taborites (also followers of Hus), the Utraquists were moderates and maintained amicable relations with the Roman Catholic Church. As a consequence, the Council of Basel in 1433 declared them to be true Christians. “Utraquist
 Mircea Eliade (ed.), The Encyclopedia of Religion, vol.10 (New York: MacMillan Publishing Company, 1987), 106.
 Later calling themselves Moravians for their native land of Moravia, the group maintained friendly relations with Martin Luther during the episcopacies of Jan Augusta and Jan Blahoslav (1523-1571). The Moravian Church was had dioceses, abandoned clerical celibacy and had a Reformed understanding of baptism and the Eucharist (Martin Luther wrote favorably about them). Philip Wingeier-Rayo, John Wesley’s Missiology: A Review of Moravian Contributions (Oxford Institute, Presented to the Mission and Evangelism Working Group, 2007).
 The Brethren were only able to survive through secret meetings and the inability of the government officials to enforce conformity. Contact with Lutherans across the border helped to sustain morale and some Moravians crossed into Germany. Originally they expected to return home, but then realized that they needed to stay longer and built a more permanent community. Philip Wingeier-Rayo, John Wesley’s Missiology: A Review of Moravian Contributions (Oxford Institute, 2008).
 "I felt," he wrote, " my heart strangely warmed. I felt I did trust in Christ, Christ alone, for salvation; and an assurance was given me that He had taken away my sins." J.F. Hurst, John Wesley the Methodist. (Kessinger Publishing, (2003), 102–103.
 The members of Fetter Lane Society, who had converted mainly because of his brother's Charles Wesley’s, and Whitefield's preaching, they had joined the former's bands. Wesley felt that, by supporting quietism, the Moravians had disagreed with him. He decided to form his own followers by forming a separate society, which came to be known in England as the 'Methodist Society'. http://www.winentrance.com/general_knowledge/john-wesley.html.
 Stephen Tomkins, John Wesley: A Biography. Eerdmans, (2003), 69.
 From then on he took the opportunities to preach wherever an assembly could be brought together, more than once using his father's tombstone at Epworth as a pulpit. Wesley continued for fifty years – entering churches when he was invited, and taking his stand in the fields, in halls, cottages, and chapels, when the churches would not receive him. „Moravian Influence“, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Wesley, 10-26-2011.
 Those who were deemed unworthy would not receive the new tickets and, hence, would be dropped out of the society without any disturbance. To keep out the unruly from the society, John established a probationary system as well. The clergymen and magistrates persecuted Wesley and the Methodists in 1739, on the account that they were not ordained or licensed by the Anglican Church. John Wesley http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/
 To broaden his reach, he evaluated and approved men and women who were not ordained by the Anglican Church to preach and do pastoral work. In 1743, when the society had grown large in number, John wrote a set of doctrine called 'General Rules' for the 'United Societies', which formed the nucleus of the Methodist Discipline.
 He aspired to make Christians perfect in love i.e. they should be guided by a deep desire to please God and that they should have regards for other's welfare. He believed that by following this principle, a person will never be able to commit intentional or willful sin. www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/john-wesley-88.php
 Whitefield inclined to Calvinism. In his first tour in America, he embraced the views of the New England School of Calvinism.
 Wesley published his sermon anyway. Whitefield was one of many who responded. The two men separated their practice in 1741. In 1778 in order to preserve Methodism Wesley founded 'The Arminian Magazine'.
 Abel Stevens, The History of the Religious Movement of the Eighteenth Century, called Methodism. (Carlton & Porter, 1858), 155.
 32 vols., Bristol, 1771–74, frequently reprinted in editions varying greatly in the number of volumes). His chief prose works are a standard publication in seven octavo volumes of the Methodist Book Concern, New York. The Poetical Works of John and Charles, ed. G. Osborn, appeared in 13 vols., London, 1868–72.
 Originally published in 20 parts, London, 1740–89; new ed. by N. Curnock containing notes from unpublished diaries, 6 vols., vols. i.-ii., London and New York, 1909–11); The Doctrine of Original Sin (Bristol, 1757; in reply to Dr. John Taylor of Norwich); "An Earnest Appeal to Men of Reason and Religion (originally published in three parts; 2d ed., Bristol, 1743), an elaborate defense of Methodism, describing the evils of the times in society and the church; a Plain Account of Christian Perfection (1766).
 A Collection of Hymns for the Use of the People called Methodists,(1779) Abingdon Press,U.S.; New edition edition (30 Aug 1990).
 H. Abelove, “John Wesley’s plagiarism of Samuel Johnson and its contemporary reception.” The Huntington Library Quarterly, 59(1), (1997), 73–80.
 Charles Wallace, (1997) Susanna Wesley : the complete writings, New York : Oxford University Press, 67.
 Wesley is believed to have traveled in the course of his itinerant ministry more than 250,000 miles, and to have preached more than 40,000 times. www.tlogical.net/biojwesley.htm
 At least on justification, though not perhaps on sanctification, Letter to John Newton, 14 May, 1765.
 Details about this concept with some misunderstandings about his original view of predestination and elaborated more than 50 years after Calvin’s death will be discussed in the coming chapter.
 J. Calvin, Institutio, vol. 3. Ch. 21, 5, (1541). Leith comments: “While Calvin worked hard for the proper order for his theology, he did not attempt to press all Christian doctrines into one system whose paramenters where fixed. Hence much of his theology… remains open ended. While Calvin tried to resolve some of the paradoxes of his theology, as in the case of his “double predestination”, many of the seemingly contradictory statements remain.” John Leith, Introduction to the Reformed Tradition (Atlanta: John Knox Press, 1981), 128.
 Wolfgang Layh (ed.): Dogmatik-Repetitorium (Erlangen: 1994), 168, 174, 192.
 Ibid., 14, 90, 127, 182. For the whole section: Kantzenbach, Friedrich Wilhelm: Die Reformation in Deutschland und Europa, Evangelische Enzyklopädie vol. 9 (Gütersloh: 1965), 92; Joseph & Iserloh Lortz, Erwin: Kleine Reformationsgeschichte. Ursachen-Verlauf-Wirkung (Freiburg: 1969), 190, 191.
 T. H. L. Parker, Portrait of Calvin (London: SCM Press. 1954, and John Calvin: A Biography
( Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1975); Ronald S. Wallace, Calvin, Geneva and the Reformation
(Grand Rapids: Baker, 1988); Timothy George, ed., John Calvin and the Church. A Prism of Reform
(Louisville: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1990); Alister E. McGrath, A Life of John Calvin: A Study in the Shaping of Western Culture (Oxford: Blackwell, 1990).
 Dennis Bratcher, http://www.crivoice.org/tulip.html.
 Kantzenbach, Friedrich Wilhelm: Die Reformation in Deutschland und Europa, Evangelische Enzyklopädie, vol. 9 (Gütersloh, 1965), 81, 83.
 Gerrish, B.A.: Hans-Dieter Betz (ed.) Art. „Calvin,“ RGG, vol.2 (Tübingen: 1999), 20; Ganoczy, Alexander, Walter Kieper (ed.), : „Art. Calvin“, Lexikon für Theologie und Kirche, vol. 2 (Freiburg: 1994), 896.
 Pfisterer, Ernst: Calvins Wirken in Genf, Zeugen und Zeugnisse, vol. 5 (Essen: 1957).
 John Wesley, Contemporary Wesleyanism and the Reformed Tradition http://www.drurywriting.com/keith/wesley.the.calvinist.htm, 20/29/2011.
 Lyle W. Lange, God So Loved the World: A Study of Christian Doctrine (Milwaukee: Northwestern Publishing House, 2006), 448.
 Chris Bounds & Keith Drury, John Wesley/ the Calvinist , http://www.drurywriting.com/keith/wesley.the.calvinist.htm, 20/29/2011.
 Chris Bounds & Keith Drury, “Wesley’s Differences with Contemporary Wesleyanism” http://www.drurywriting.com/keith/wesley.the.calvinist.htm, 10/24/2005.
 For example, John Wesley describes his Aldersgate experience as having his heart “strangely warmed.” As a result he testifies, “I felt I did trust Christ, Christ alone for salvation; and an assurance was given me that He had taken away my sins. He had taken away my sins, even mine, and saved me from the law of sin and death.”
 William W. Combs, Does the Bible Teach Prevenient Grace? http://www.apbrown2.net/web/.
 Gerald L. Priest, “Revival and Revivalism: A Historical and Doctrinal Evaluation,” Detroit Baptist Seminary Journal 1 (Fall 1996): 245–46; Jay E. Smith “The Theology of Charles Finney: A System of Self-Reformation,” Trinity Journal 13 (Spring 1992): 82–84.
 A.A. Hodge, Outlines of Theology: Pelagianism, Semi-Pelagianism & Augustinianism http://www.monergism.com/thethreshold/articles/onsite/semi-pelagian.html
 He denies total depravity and inability. What Love Is This? Calvinism’s Misrepresentation of God (Sisters, OR: Loyal Publishing, 2002), pp. 92–96.
 James R. White places Geisler in the Arminian camp (The Potter’s Freedom [Amityville, NY: Calvary Press, 2000], p. 20). Admittedly, Geisler’s position is not easy to pin down. He affirms a belief in “total depravity,” but denies it includes total inability, arguing that man still has a free will after the fall, faith is not a gift given only to the elect, and that man must cooperate with God’s grace (Norman Geisler, Systematic Theology, vol. 3. [Minneapolis: Bethany, 2004], pp. 126, 128, 135, 144, and Chosen But Free [Minneapolis: Bethany, 1999], pp. 34, 35, 57, 60, 65, 93). I would argue his position seems to be closer to Semi-Pelagianism. Of course, Geisler would deny this since he clearly, though quite falsely, claims to be a moderate Calvinist.
 Henry C. Thiessen, Introductory Lectures in Systematic Theology (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1949), p. 155; also in the revised ed. by Vernon D. Doerksen (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979), 106.
 Jordan cites texts commonly used to support prevenient grace (John 1:9, Titus 2:11) and says about Titus 2:11: “He did not say that salvation appeared unto all men, but the enabling grace of God, that enables the lost sinner to receive salvation (when it is presented to him), has appeared to all men.” John R. Rice, Predestined for Hell? No! (Murfreesboro, TN: Sword of the Lord, 1958), pp. 50– 54; E. Robert Jordan, Calvinist or Biblicist? (Lansdale, PA: Calvary Baptist Theological Seminary, n.d).
 Magnusson, Magnus (ed). Chambers Biographical Dictionary (Chambers: Cambridge University Press, 1995) 62
 This five points are the heart of Calvinism (Reformed Tradition) and were developed from the Synod of Dordtrecht in 1618-19 in response to the Remonstrants' (followers of James Arminius) five points that challenged Reformed orthodoxy, especially the double predestination of Theodore Beza, a follower of John Calvin. In fact, TULIP was developed 50 years after Calvin and therefore should be taken with caution are representing Calvin’s predestination theory. Since Calvin's theological system was much broader than these five points. The likeability to understand it wrong is high. But these five points serve as a help to encapsulate the Calvinist/Reformed position against Arminius and later John Wesley.
 Harper, Steven "Wesleyan Arminianism" Four Views on Eternal Security (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2002) 227ff
 Harper 239–240.
 Wesley, John "A Call to Backsliders" The Works of John Wesley, ed. Thomas Jackson, 14 vols. (London: Wesley Methodist Book Room, 1872; repr, Grand Rapids: Baker, 1986) 3:211ff
 The doctrine is chiefly associated with the followers of John Wesley, founder of Methodism, from Wesley's understanding of sanctifying grace. The doctrine is defined in Wesley's book, "A Plain Account of Christian Perfection". Perfection can either define the journey to perfection or the state of perfection. Christian perfection is commonly referred to as "going on to perfection". http://www.dewildmissions.nl/OudeSite/mediapool/49/494031/data/A_Plain_Account_of_Christian_Perfection.pdf
 Wesley, John "A Plain Account of Christian Perfection", Works.
 Wesley, John "The End of Christ’s Coming", Works.
 Wesley, John "A Plain Account of Christian Perfection", Works.
 Pelagianism is a theological theory named after Pelagius (AD 354 – AD 420/440), although he denied, at least at some point in his life, many of the doctrines were associated with his name. It is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without special Divine aid. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelagianism, 10/9/2011.
 Substitutionary effect of atonement– Arminians also affirm with Calvinists the substitutionary effect of Christ's atonement and that this effect is limited only to the elect. Classical Arminians would agree with Calvinists that this substitution was penal satisfaction for all of the elect, while most Wesleyan Arminians would maintain that the substitution was governmental in nature.
 J.A.B., Jongeneel, 'De protestantse missionaire beweging tot 1789', in F. Verstraelen (ed.), Oecumenische inleiding in de missiologie: Teksten en konteksten van het wereldchristendom (Kok: Kampen, 1988), 230.
 Calvin personally had a positive attitude towards missionary work, as we will see in a moment.
 Jongeneel, J.A.B., 1988, 'De protestantse missionaire beweging tot 1789', in F. Verstraelen (ed.), Oecumenische inleiding in de missiologie: Teksten en konteksten van het wereldchristendom, pp. 231, Kok, Kampen.
 Coleman, K 2009. Calvin and Missions. WRS Journal 16(1), 28-33.
 Stewart, K J 2009. Calvinism and missions: The contested relationship revisited. Themelios 3(1), 63-78.
 Mc Kee, E 2007. The character and significance of John Calvin’s teaching on social and economic issues, in Dommen, E & Bratt, D (eds.), John Calvin rediscovered : the impact of his social and economic thought, 3-24. Louisville : Westminster John Knox.
 Brueggemann, W 2009. Redescribing reality: what we do when we read the Bible. London: SCM.
 Nico Botha, John Calvin in missiological perspective: on church unity and social justice Department of Christian Spirituality, Church History and Missiology, University of South Africa, Pretoria, South Africa, 2009.
 J.A.B., Jongeneel, F. Verstraelen (ed.) “De protestantse missionaire beweging tot 1789,” Oecumenische inleiding in de missiologie: Teksten en konteksten van het wereldchristendom (Kok: Kampen, 1988), 233–235.
 Charles Davis Cremeans, The Reception of Calvinistic Thought in England (Urbana, Ill.:
University of Illinois Press, 1949); Gordon Crosse, A Short History of the English Reformation (New York: Morehouse Gorham Co., 1950); Merle d’Aubigné, The Reformation in England, 2 vols. (London: Banner of Truth Trust, 1962); and Rosemary O’Day, The Debate on the English Reformation (London: Methuen, 1986).
 Calvinism, International World History Project - World History From The Pre-Sumerian Period
To The Present, A Collection Of World History Related Essays, Documents, Maps and Music, http://history-world.org, retrieved by No 10th, 2009,
 John Knox, www.swissworld.org/en/history/the_reformation/geneva, retrieved Nov. 18th , 2009.
 The basis for Christian missions, according to Calvin, is the present reign of Jesus Christ. In his commentaries on the Psalms and prophets, it is clear that Calvin considered the kingdom of David to be a shadow of the greater Kingdom to come. For instance, commenting on Isaiah 2:4, Calvin writes, “the difference between the kingdom of David, which was but a shadow, and this other Kingdom,” is that “by the coming of Christ, [God] began to reign… in the person of his only-begotten Son.”John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries, vol. 7, Isaiah 1-32 (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1979), 98-99.
 John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries, vol. 4, Joshua—Psalms 1-35 (Grand Rapids, Baker, 1979), 385.
 John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries, vol. 6, (Grand Rapids, Baker, 1979), comment on Ps. 110:2, Psalms 93-150, 301; Isaiah 45:22, Matthew 24:19, Acts 8:1
 John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries, vol. 7 (Grand Rapids, Baker, 1979), comment on Isaiah 2:4, 1-32, 98-102.
 John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries, vol. 6 (Grand Rapids, Baker, 1979), comment on Psalm 110:1, Psalms 93-150, 299.
 Ibid., 300.
 John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries, vol. 7 (Grand Rapids, Baker, 1979), Isaiah 1-32, 92.
 John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries, vol. 6 (Grand Rapids, Baker, 1979), comment on Psalm 110:2 in Psalms 93-150, 300.
 Charles Chaney, “The Missionary Dynamic in the Theology of John Calvin” (Reformed Review 17: March 1964), 28.
 John Calvin, Calvin’s Commentaries, vol. 7 (Grand Rapids, Baker, 1979), comment on Isaiah 12:5, Isaiah 1-32, 403.
 Charles Chaney, “The Missionary Dynamic in the Theology of John Calvin,” (Reformed Review 17: March 1964), Commentary on Isaiah 2:3, in 28.
 J. van den Berg, “Calvin’s Missionary Message: Some Remarks About the Relation Between Calvinism and Missions.” Evangelical Quarterly 22 (Jul. 1950): 177.
 Please check for details and more bibliography in the appendix
 Philip Wingeier-Rayo, Presented to the Mission and Evangelism Working Group Oxford Institute August 2007.
 Journal, January 29, 1738.
 The Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, Letter Books, 1701-1786, Collection 155.
 Martin Schmidt, The Young Wesley: Missionary and Theologian of Missions, Epworth Press, 1958, p.24.
 Sibbs’ missiology is derived from a literal interpretation of Scripture as the undisputed, established authority standing above all doctrines. As Puritans migrated to the New World their understanding of universal salvation history limited their outreach to Native Americans because of their Calvinistic understanding as the chosen people.
 Journal, February 14, 1735.
 John Wesley, “Minutes of Several Conversations” Q.3, in The Works of John Wesley, ed. Thomas Jackson (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1978), Vol.8, 299.
 John Wesley, Sermon 75, “On Working Out Our Own Salvation,” II.1.
 The real father of global Methodist missions was his younger protégé Thomas Coke (1747-1814).
 I summarize this as “The Wesleyan Synthesis,” chap. 11 of The Radical Wesley and Patterns for Church Renewal (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 1980; Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 1996).
 Luís Wesley de Souza, “‘The Wisdom of God in Creation’: Mission and the Wesleyan Pentalateral,” in Howard A. Snyder, ed., Global Good News: Mission in a New Context (Nashville, TN: Abingdon, 2001), 138- 152; Howard A. Snyder, “Is all Truth God’s Truth?” Spring Arbor University Journal 25:3 (Fall 2001), 4-6.
 Magnusson, Magnus (ed). Chambers Biographical Dictionary (Chambers: Cambridge University Press, 1995) 62
 Olson, Roger E. Arminian Theology: Myths and Realities (Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press, 2006) 17–18, 23, 80–82, 142–145, 152
 Gonzalez, Justo L. The Story of Christianity, Vol. Two: The Reformation to the Present Day (New York: Harpercollins Publishers, 1985; reprint – Peabody: Prince Press, 2008) 180
 Pelagianism is a theological theory named after Pelagius (AD 354 – AD 420/440), although he denied, at least at some point in his life, many of the doctrines associated with his name. It is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without special Divine aid. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pelagianism, 10/9/2011.
 Zinzendorf was receiving pressure from the President of Upper Lusatia for having received too many of their best artisans and Herrnhut was getting too big and too visible. He had to keep a smaller profile by starting to disband Herrnhut, thus pushing them into the mission field. See An Extract of the Letter wrote by the Church of Herrnhut to the President of Upper Lusatia, 24 Jan. 1732.
 Bishop Thomas Coke (1747–1814) was the first American Methodist bishop. He was born in the Welsh town of Brecon, the son of a wealthy apothecary. He swiftly rose to become John Wesley’s chief assistant. Coke served two terms as President of the Wesleyan Conference in Britain and also presided regularly over the Irish Conference. Coke died while en route to India as the leader of the first Methodist mission to that country. He is known as the “Father of Methodist Missions”. John Vickers , Thomas Coke: Apostle of Methodism (1969); Frederick Abbott Norwood, The Story of American Methodism: A History of the United Methodists and Their Relations
 Kenneth Cain Kinghorn, The Heritage of American Methodism (1999).
 In Christian theology, conditional election is the belief that God chooses, for eternal salvation, those whom He foresees will have faith in Christ. This belief emphasizes the importance of a person's free will. The counter-view is known as unconditional election and is the belief that God chooses whomever He will, based solely on His purposes and apart from an individual's free will.
 Unconditional election is the Calvinist teaching that before God created the world, he chose to save some people according to his own purposes and apart from any conditions related to those persons. John Calvin (1559). "Of the Eternal Election (3.21.7)". Institutes of the Christian Religion. "We say, then, that Scripture clearly proves this much, that God by his eternal and immutable counsel determined once for all those whom it was his desire one day to admit to salvation, and those whom, on the other hand, it was his desire to doom to destruction. We maintain that this counsel, as regards the elect, is founded on his free mercy, without any respect to human worth, while those whom he dooms to destruction are excluded from access to life by a just and blameless, but at the same time incomprehensible judgment. In regard to the elect, we regard calling as the evidence of election, and justification as another symbol of its manifestation, until it is fully accomplished by the attainment of glory. But as the Lord seals his elect by calling and justification, so by excluding the reprobate either from the knowledge of his name or the sanctification of his Spirit, he by these marks in a manner discloses the judgment which awaits them."
 Amyraldism (or sometimes Amyraldianism, also known as the School of Saumur, Hypothetical universalism, Post Redemptionism, Moderate Calvinism, or Four-point Calvinism) primarily refers to a modified form of Calvinist theology. It rejects one of the Five points of Calvinism, the doctrine of limited atonement, in favour of an unlimited atonement similar to that of Hugo Grotius. Simply stated, Amyraldism holds that God has provided Christ's atonement for all alike, but seeing that none would believe on their own, he then elected those whom he will bring to faith in Christ, thereby preserving the Calvinist doctrine of unconditional election. Named after its formulator Moses Amyraut, this doctrine is still viewed as a variety of Calvinism in that it maintains the particularity of sovereign grace in the application of the atonement. However, detractors like B. B. Warfield have termed it "an inconsistent and therefore unstable form of Calvinism."Warfield, B. B., The Plan of Salvation (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1973)
 Philip Wingeier-Rayo, John Wesley’s Missiology: A Review of Moravian Contributions, Presented to the Mission and Evangelism Working Group (Oxford Institute, August 2007).
 It was Thomas Coke who became “the father of Methodist foreign missions.
 For the spread of Calvinism in France, see especially Jean-Marc Berthoud, “John Calvin and
the Spread of the Gospel in France,” in Fulfilling the Great Commission (London: The Westminster
Conference, 1992), 1–53; W. Stanford Reid, “Calvin’s Geneva: A Missionary Centre,” The Reformed
Theological Review , 42, no. 3 (Sept.–Dec. 1983): 65–74; and Mack P. Holt, Renaissance and Reformation France, 1500–1648 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002).
 http://history-world.org/calvinism.htm, retrieved Nov. 14th, 2009.
 In West Germany Calvinism first entered from the Netherlands in the sixthies and was first visible in the cities Cleve, Jülich, in East Frisian and Bentheim the connection to the Calvinist Dutch regions was strong too. Karl Dietrich Schmidt, Grundriß der Kirchengeschichte, 8th ed. (Göttingen, Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, 1983), 370.
 For a summary of the Reformed church in Germany: R. W. Scribner, The German Reformation
(London: Macmillan, 1986), James N. Hardin and Max Reinhart, German Writers of the Renaissance and Reformation, 1280–1580 (Detroit: Gale Research, 1997).
 Jesuits arrived in 1564. They began to publish books and founded schools and 40 colleges by 17th
century - They didn't charge tuition and allowed people of all faiths to enter them. By the 17th century, they were the main educators of the upper classes of Poland. The Jesuits also got the Polish farmers on their side, - preaching them they shouldn't be oppressed. By the mid 17th century, the Catholics were fully in charge of Poland - other religions were still tolerated - but Catholics were favored for getting governmental posts and serving in Parliament. http://www.luc.edu/faculty/ldossey/counterreformationnov25.htm, retrieved 17.Nov.2007
 Jesuits arrived in 1564. They began to publish books and founded schools and 40 colleges by 17th
century - They didn't charge tuition and allowed people of all faiths to enter them. By the 17th century, they were the main educators of the upper classes of Poland. The Jesuits also got the Polish farmers on their side, - preaching them they shouldn't be oppressed. By the mid 17th century, the Catholics were fully in charge of Poland - other religions were still tolerated - but Catholics were favored for getting governmental posts and serving in Parliament. http://www.luc.edu/faculty/ldossey/counterreformationnov25.htm, retrieved 17.Nov.2007
 Imre Révész, History of the Hungarian Reformed Church , ed. G. N. Knight (Washington:
Hungarian Reformed Federation, 1956); Gyula Combos, The Lean Years: A Study of Hungarian Calvinism in Crisis (New York: Kossuth Foundation, 1960); Alexander Sándor Unghváry, The Hungarian Protestant Reformation in the Sixteenth Century (New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1990); and Graeme Murdock, Calvinism on the Frontier 1600–1660: International Calvinism and the Reformed Church in Hungary and Transylvania (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2000).
 www.historylearningsite.co.uk/John_Calvin.htm , retrieved 18th November, 2009.
 For a summary of the Reformed church in the Netherlands, Jerry D. van der Veen, “Adoption of
Calvinism in the Reformed Church in the Netherlands” (B.S.T. thesis, Biblical Seminary in New York,
1951); Walter Lagerway, “The History of Calvinism in the Netherlands,” in The Rise and Development of Calvinism , ed. John Bratt (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1959); W. Robert Godfrey, “Calvin and Calvinism in the Netherlands,” in John Calvin: His Influence in the Western World , ed. W. Stanford Reid (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1982), 95–120; J. P. Elliott, “Protestantization in the Northern Netherlands: A Case Study— The Classis of Dordrecht, 1572–1640,” 2 vols. (Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, 1990); and A. C.Duke, Reformation and Revolt in the Low Countries (London: Hambledon, 2003).
 Gisbertus Voetius: Toward a Reformed Marriage of Knowledge and Piety,” in Protestant
Scholasticism: Essays in Reassessment , ed. Carl Trueman and R. Scott Clark (Carlisle, U.K.: Paternoster, 1998), and “Appendix: The Dutch Second Reformation,” in The Quest for Full Assurance: The Legacy of Calvin and His Successors (Edinburgh: Banner of Truth Trust, 1999), 286–309, and “Assurance of Faith: A Comparison of English Puritanism and the Nadere Reformatie ,” in Puritan Reformed Spirituality (Darlington, England: Evangelical Press, 2006), 288– 308, and with Randall Pederson, Meet the Puritans (Grand Rapids: Reformation Heritage Books, 2006), 739–823, and “Evangelicalism in the Dutch Further Reformation,” in The Emergence of Evangelicalism: Exploring Historical Continuities, ed. Michael A. G. Haykin and Kenneth J. Stewart (Nottingham, U.K.: Apollos, 2008), 146-168.
 Gisbertus Voetius (1589–1676) studied theology at Leiden (the first Reformed/Hervormde faculty of theology in the Netherlands). After several years as a pastor (1610–1634), he founded the University of Utrecht where he served as professor in Semitic languages and theology (1634–1676). As we will see later on, he became the first Dutch theologian who devoted a great deal of time to missiological questions. His 'theology of mission' can be found in his Selectae Disputationes Theologicae (5 vols, 1648–1669) and Politica Ecclesiastica (3 vols, 1663–1667).
 J.A.B., Jongeneel, “De protestantse missionaire beweging tot 1789,” Oecumenische inleiding in de missiologie: Teksten en konteksten van het wereldchristendom, F. Verstraelen (ed.) (Kampen: Kok,1988), 232.
 Charles E. Edwards, “Calvin and Missions,”The Evangelical Quarterly 8 (1936): 47.
 R. Pierce Beaver, “The Genevan Mission to Brazil, ” The Reformed Journal 17 (1967): 15.
 As Gordon Laman writes, a kind of “religious imperialism” had joined with the “commercial and political imperialism” of the Spain and Portugal. Gordon Laman, “The Origin of Protestant Missions,” (Reformed Review 43, 1989), 53.
 R. Pierce Beaver, “The Genevan Mission to Brazil, ” The Reformed Journal 17, (1967), 14.
 G. Baez-Camargo, “The Earliest Protestant Missionary Venture in Latin America,” Church History 21 (Jun. 1952): 135.
 Ibid., 136.
 Ibid., 138.
 R. Pierce Beaver, “The Genevan Mission to Brazil, ” The Reformed Journal 17, (1967), 20.